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Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation.

Diomandé SE, Nguyen-The C, Guinebretière MH, Broussolle V, Brillard J - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species.Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH.Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France ; Université d'Avignon, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regulation of the FA pool in Bacillus. The enzymes are identified in purple or in green (for those which encoding genes are regulated by the global regulator FapR, as in Figure 2). Global regulators of metabolism and sporulation are identified in red. Other regulators are in blue. Red blunt-head line and arrows indicate repression or activation, respectively. Orange boxes represent environmental conditions involved in FA regulation.
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Figure 3: Regulation of the FA pool in Bacillus. The enzymes are identified in purple or in green (for those which encoding genes are regulated by the global regulator FapR, as in Figure 2). Global regulators of metabolism and sporulation are identified in red. Other regulators are in blue. Red blunt-head line and arrows indicate repression or activation, respectively. Orange boxes represent environmental conditions involved in FA regulation.

Mentions: The FA pool results from FA biosynthesis, FA incorporation into membrane phospholipids and FA degradation. FA biosynthesis is an energetically expensive process, which explains why the rate of FA production is tightly regulated to ensure that the supply of membrane phospholipids corresponds exactly to the needs of the cell. Indeed, the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis has been shown to result in a rapid decrease in the rate of FA synthesis and in the accumulation of acylated-derivatives of ACP (Rock and Jackowski, 1982; Heath and Rock, 1996). During the optimal growth or responses to changes in the environment of Bacillus, the FA composition is regulated to maintain cell membrane homeostasis. Here, we will review some key regulators of FA metabolism (Figure 3). Most of these regulators have been described in B. subtilis.


Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation.

Diomandé SE, Nguyen-The C, Guinebretière MH, Broussolle V, Brillard J - Front Microbiol (2015)

Regulation of the FA pool in Bacillus. The enzymes are identified in purple or in green (for those which encoding genes are regulated by the global regulator FapR, as in Figure 2). Global regulators of metabolism and sporulation are identified in red. Other regulators are in blue. Red blunt-head line and arrows indicate repression or activation, respectively. Orange boxes represent environmental conditions involved in FA regulation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525379&req=5

Figure 3: Regulation of the FA pool in Bacillus. The enzymes are identified in purple or in green (for those which encoding genes are regulated by the global regulator FapR, as in Figure 2). Global regulators of metabolism and sporulation are identified in red. Other regulators are in blue. Red blunt-head line and arrows indicate repression or activation, respectively. Orange boxes represent environmental conditions involved in FA regulation.
Mentions: The FA pool results from FA biosynthesis, FA incorporation into membrane phospholipids and FA degradation. FA biosynthesis is an energetically expensive process, which explains why the rate of FA production is tightly regulated to ensure that the supply of membrane phospholipids corresponds exactly to the needs of the cell. Indeed, the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis has been shown to result in a rapid decrease in the rate of FA synthesis and in the accumulation of acylated-derivatives of ACP (Rock and Jackowski, 1982; Heath and Rock, 1996). During the optimal growth or responses to changes in the environment of Bacillus, the FA composition is regulated to maintain cell membrane homeostasis. Here, we will review some key regulators of FA metabolism (Figure 3). Most of these regulators have been described in B. subtilis.

Bottom Line: Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species.Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH.Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France ; Université d'Avignon, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus