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Comprehensive review of the detection methods for synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

Namera A, Kawamura M, Nakamoto A, Saito T, Nagao M - Forensic Toxicol (2015)

Bottom Line: Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide.Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes.Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553 Japan.

ABSTRACT

A number of N-alkyl indole or indazole-3-carbonyl analogs, with modified chemical structures, are distributed throughout the world as synthetic cannabinoids. Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide. Acute deaths caused by overdoses of these drugs have been reported. Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes. Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods. This review presents the various colorimetric detections, immunochemical assays, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods, and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods proposed for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Probable fragmentation pathways of synthetic cannabinoids by electrospray ionization and electron ionization (modified from references [12, 31])
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Fig4: Probable fragmentation pathways of synthetic cannabinoids by electrospray ionization and electron ionization (modified from references [12, 31])

Mentions: Typical mass spectra of synthetic cannabinoids are shown in Fig. 3. Molecular (M+) and/or fragment ions observed by full scan data acquisition of GC–MS reflect the structures of the synthetic cannabinoids [13, 15, 16]. As shown in Fig. 4, the fragmentation pathways of naphthoylindoles have been well studied for the identification of synthetic cannabinoids by GC–MS [12, 15]. Therefore, the identification of synthetic cannabinoids is facilitated by comparison of the spectra with commercial and open databases.Fig. 3


Comprehensive review of the detection methods for synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

Namera A, Kawamura M, Nakamoto A, Saito T, Nagao M - Forensic Toxicol (2015)

Probable fragmentation pathways of synthetic cannabinoids by electrospray ionization and electron ionization (modified from references [12, 31])
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525208&req=5

Fig4: Probable fragmentation pathways of synthetic cannabinoids by electrospray ionization and electron ionization (modified from references [12, 31])
Mentions: Typical mass spectra of synthetic cannabinoids are shown in Fig. 3. Molecular (M+) and/or fragment ions observed by full scan data acquisition of GC–MS reflect the structures of the synthetic cannabinoids [13, 15, 16]. As shown in Fig. 4, the fragmentation pathways of naphthoylindoles have been well studied for the identification of synthetic cannabinoids by GC–MS [12, 15]. Therefore, the identification of synthetic cannabinoids is facilitated by comparison of the spectra with commercial and open databases.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide.Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes.Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553 Japan.

ABSTRACT

A number of N-alkyl indole or indazole-3-carbonyl analogs, with modified chemical structures, are distributed throughout the world as synthetic cannabinoids. Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide. Acute deaths caused by overdoses of these drugs have been reported. Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes. Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods. This review presents the various colorimetric detections, immunochemical assays, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods, and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods proposed for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus