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Comprehensive review of the detection methods for synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

Namera A, Kawamura M, Nakamoto A, Saito T, Nagao M - Forensic Toxicol (2015)

Bottom Line: Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide.Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes.Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553 Japan.

ABSTRACT

A number of N-alkyl indole or indazole-3-carbonyl analogs, with modified chemical structures, are distributed throughout the world as synthetic cannabinoids. Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide. Acute deaths caused by overdoses of these drugs have been reported. Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes. Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods. This review presents the various colorimetric detections, immunochemical assays, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods, and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods proposed for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Structures of cathinones
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Fig2: Structures of cathinones

Mentions: Currently, many illegal drugs are abused worldwide, with serious social problems arising as a consequence. Although various stimulants and narcotics have been in use to date, new drugs targeting cannabinoid receptors have been abused since their existence in herbal mixtures was disclosed in 2008 [1]. HU-210, a synthetic classical cannabinoid, and cyclohexylphenols were commonly used as recreational drugs, but mainstream use has since changed to N-alkyl indole-3-carbonyl derivatives, such as drugs of the JWH and AM series (Fig. 1), because their activities are stronger than those of the conventional cannabinoids. These compounds are called cannabimimetics or synthetic cannabinoids and can be purchased as “spice” or “K2” in the drug market or via the Internet. Cathinones, also known as “bath salts” or “plant food,” are psychoactive drugs and are also abused as recreational drugs. The parent compound, cathinone, is a well-known stimulant, and can be isolated from the khat plant or produced by synthetic means. Cathinone analogs with high selectivity and strong activity for serotonin receptors and monoamine transporters have been distributed in the drug market (Fig. 2). The prevalence of cannabinoid and cathinone abuse in many countries has been reviewed elsewhere [2–7].Fig. 1


Comprehensive review of the detection methods for synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

Namera A, Kawamura M, Nakamoto A, Saito T, Nagao M - Forensic Toxicol (2015)

Structures of cathinones
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525208&req=5

Fig2: Structures of cathinones
Mentions: Currently, many illegal drugs are abused worldwide, with serious social problems arising as a consequence. Although various stimulants and narcotics have been in use to date, new drugs targeting cannabinoid receptors have been abused since their existence in herbal mixtures was disclosed in 2008 [1]. HU-210, a synthetic classical cannabinoid, and cyclohexylphenols were commonly used as recreational drugs, but mainstream use has since changed to N-alkyl indole-3-carbonyl derivatives, such as drugs of the JWH and AM series (Fig. 1), because their activities are stronger than those of the conventional cannabinoids. These compounds are called cannabimimetics or synthetic cannabinoids and can be purchased as “spice” or “K2” in the drug market or via the Internet. Cathinones, also known as “bath salts” or “plant food,” are psychoactive drugs and are also abused as recreational drugs. The parent compound, cathinone, is a well-known stimulant, and can be isolated from the khat plant or produced by synthetic means. Cathinone analogs with high selectivity and strong activity for serotonin receptors and monoamine transporters have been distributed in the drug market (Fig. 2). The prevalence of cannabinoid and cathinone abuse in many countries has been reviewed elsewhere [2–7].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide.Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes.Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553 Japan.

ABSTRACT

A number of N-alkyl indole or indazole-3-carbonyl analogs, with modified chemical structures, are distributed throughout the world as synthetic cannabinoids. Like synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogs are also abused and cause serious problems worldwide. Acute deaths caused by overdoses of these drugs have been reported. Various analytical methods that can cope with the rapid changes in chemical structures are required for routine analysis and screening of these drugs in seized and biological materials for forensic and clinical purposes. Although many chromatographic methods to analyze each drug have been published, there are only a few articles summarizing these analytical methods. This review presents the various colorimetric detections, immunochemical assays, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods, and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods proposed for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus