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Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age.

Rozzi FV, Koudou Y, Froment A, Le Bouc Y, Botton J - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life.It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence.Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UPR 2147 CNRS, 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014 Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Upper arm indicators of body composition in Baka children.The mid upper arm circumference combined with triceps skinfold measurements allows parameters for muscle (protein) and fat (energy) stocks to be computed58. (a,b) Compared to American references, the values for Baka girls are always higher than for Baka boys; the relatively bigger arm in girls is mainly due to greater muscle development. (c,d) In girls, UMA is close to the American average after puberty, while in boys it remains below the 10th American percentile. (e,f) Conversely, fat is very low in both sexes, with values close to those of Americans in the early years, but a marked decrease during childhood (from 3 to 6 years of age); there is no fat accumulation as the children become older. In other words, Baka children are muscular and lean.
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f4: Upper arm indicators of body composition in Baka children.The mid upper arm circumference combined with triceps skinfold measurements allows parameters for muscle (protein) and fat (energy) stocks to be computed58. (a,b) Compared to American references, the values for Baka girls are always higher than for Baka boys; the relatively bigger arm in girls is mainly due to greater muscle development. (c,d) In girls, UMA is close to the American average after puberty, while in boys it remains below the 10th American percentile. (e,f) Conversely, fat is very low in both sexes, with values close to those of Americans in the early years, but a marked decrease during childhood (from 3 to 6 years of age); there is no fat accumulation as the children become older. In other words, Baka children are muscular and lean.

Mentions: Baka children are very lean from an early age, but their muscular mass develops considerably, especially, in girls at puberty who display values close to the American reference33 (Fig. 4).


Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age.

Rozzi FV, Koudou Y, Froment A, Le Bouc Y, Botton J - Nat Commun (2015)

Upper arm indicators of body composition in Baka children.The mid upper arm circumference combined with triceps skinfold measurements allows parameters for muscle (protein) and fat (energy) stocks to be computed58. (a,b) Compared to American references, the values for Baka girls are always higher than for Baka boys; the relatively bigger arm in girls is mainly due to greater muscle development. (c,d) In girls, UMA is close to the American average after puberty, while in boys it remains below the 10th American percentile. (e,f) Conversely, fat is very low in both sexes, with values close to those of Americans in the early years, but a marked decrease during childhood (from 3 to 6 years of age); there is no fat accumulation as the children become older. In other words, Baka children are muscular and lean.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525207&req=5

f4: Upper arm indicators of body composition in Baka children.The mid upper arm circumference combined with triceps skinfold measurements allows parameters for muscle (protein) and fat (energy) stocks to be computed58. (a,b) Compared to American references, the values for Baka girls are always higher than for Baka boys; the relatively bigger arm in girls is mainly due to greater muscle development. (c,d) In girls, UMA is close to the American average after puberty, while in boys it remains below the 10th American percentile. (e,f) Conversely, fat is very low in both sexes, with values close to those of Americans in the early years, but a marked decrease during childhood (from 3 to 6 years of age); there is no fat accumulation as the children become older. In other words, Baka children are muscular and lean.
Mentions: Baka children are very lean from an early age, but their muscular mass develops considerably, especially, in girls at puberty who display values close to the American reference33 (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life.It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence.Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UPR 2147 CNRS, 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014 Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus