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Aboveground and Belowground Herbivores Synergistically Induce Volatile Organic Sulfur Compound Emissions from Shoots but Not from Roots.

Danner H, Brown P, Cator EA, Harren FJ, van Dam NM, Cristescu SM - J. Chem. Ecol. (2015)

Bottom Line: There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface.In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore.Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Interaction Ecology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Studies on aboveground (AG) plant organs have shown that volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions differ between simultaneous attack by herbivores and single herbivore attack. There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface. In our study, Brassica rapa roots were infested with root fly larvae (Delia radicum) and the shoots infested with Pieris brassicae, either singly or simultaneously, to study these root-shoot interactions. As an analytical platform, we used Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) to investigate VOCs over a 3 day time period. Our set-up allowed us to monitor root and shoot emissions concurrently on the same plant. Focus was placed on the sulfur-containing compounds; methanethiol, dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), because these compounds previously have been shown to be biologically active in the interactions of Brassica plants, herbivores, parasitoids, and predators, yet have received relatively little attention. The shoots of plants simultaneously infested with AG and belowground (BG) herbivores emitted higher levels of sulfur-containing compounds than plants with a single herbivore species present. In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore. The onset of root emissions was more rapid after damage than the onset of shoot emissions. The shoots of double infested plants also emitted higher levels of methanol. Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic overview of the set-up for measuring root and shoot emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A constant flow of 2.25 l/h hydrocarbon-free air was applied to flush the headspace of root-cuvettes and PET oven bags which served as the cuvettes for the aboveground (AG) plant parts. Inset 1: Schematic drawing of the root cuvette. The gap between the two parts was closed with a solvent-free rubber-based sealant. Inset 2: The plants potted with an additional plastic ring (removed before measurements) to give access to the root-stem interface for attaching root cuvettes and oven bags
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: Schematic overview of the set-up for measuring root and shoot emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A constant flow of 2.25 l/h hydrocarbon-free air was applied to flush the headspace of root-cuvettes and PET oven bags which served as the cuvettes for the aboveground (AG) plant parts. Inset 1: Schematic drawing of the root cuvette. The gap between the two parts was closed with a solvent-free rubber-based sealant. Inset 2: The plants potted with an additional plastic ring (removed before measurements) to give access to the root-stem interface for attaching root cuvettes and oven bags

Mentions: Seeds were provided by Tom de Jong of Leiden University (The Netherlands) and originated from a wild population of Brassica rapa (Maarsen, The Netherlands) in 2009. Seedlings were obtained by germination onto glass beads, held in plastic containers closed with a transparent plastic lid and kept at constant temperature and humidity (24 °C, 70% rel. humidity) under long day conditions (16 h:8 h L:D cycle) in a climate chamber for 1 week (SNIJDERS Labs, Tilburg, The Netherlands). Seedlings subsequently were transferred to 2.2 l pots, (11 × 11 × 21.5 cm) filled with potting soil (Lentse Potgrond n°4, Horticoop, Bleiswijk, The Netherlands) and covered with a 3 cm layer of plain river sand, which facilitated the assessment of root damage and the access to root fly larvae and pupae. Seedlings were placed in the center of a sand-filled plastic foil ring, (height 3 cm) placed on top of the sand layer. The ring including the sand was removed before the VOC collections so that shoot enclosures as well as root cuvettes could be easily assembled to the plant’s stem-root interface (Fig. 1).Fig. 1


Aboveground and Belowground Herbivores Synergistically Induce Volatile Organic Sulfur Compound Emissions from Shoots but Not from Roots.

Danner H, Brown P, Cator EA, Harren FJ, van Dam NM, Cristescu SM - J. Chem. Ecol. (2015)

Schematic overview of the set-up for measuring root and shoot emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A constant flow of 2.25 l/h hydrocarbon-free air was applied to flush the headspace of root-cuvettes and PET oven bags which served as the cuvettes for the aboveground (AG) plant parts. Inset 1: Schematic drawing of the root cuvette. The gap between the two parts was closed with a solvent-free rubber-based sealant. Inset 2: The plants potted with an additional plastic ring (removed before measurements) to give access to the root-stem interface for attaching root cuvettes and oven bags
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525197&req=5

Fig1: Schematic overview of the set-up for measuring root and shoot emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A constant flow of 2.25 l/h hydrocarbon-free air was applied to flush the headspace of root-cuvettes and PET oven bags which served as the cuvettes for the aboveground (AG) plant parts. Inset 1: Schematic drawing of the root cuvette. The gap between the two parts was closed with a solvent-free rubber-based sealant. Inset 2: The plants potted with an additional plastic ring (removed before measurements) to give access to the root-stem interface for attaching root cuvettes and oven bags
Mentions: Seeds were provided by Tom de Jong of Leiden University (The Netherlands) and originated from a wild population of Brassica rapa (Maarsen, The Netherlands) in 2009. Seedlings were obtained by germination onto glass beads, held in plastic containers closed with a transparent plastic lid and kept at constant temperature and humidity (24 °C, 70% rel. humidity) under long day conditions (16 h:8 h L:D cycle) in a climate chamber for 1 week (SNIJDERS Labs, Tilburg, The Netherlands). Seedlings subsequently were transferred to 2.2 l pots, (11 × 11 × 21.5 cm) filled with potting soil (Lentse Potgrond n°4, Horticoop, Bleiswijk, The Netherlands) and covered with a 3 cm layer of plain river sand, which facilitated the assessment of root damage and the access to root fly larvae and pupae. Seedlings were placed in the center of a sand-filled plastic foil ring, (height 3 cm) placed on top of the sand layer. The ring including the sand was removed before the VOC collections so that shoot enclosures as well as root cuvettes could be easily assembled to the plant’s stem-root interface (Fig. 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface.In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore.Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Interaction Ecology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Studies on aboveground (AG) plant organs have shown that volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions differ between simultaneous attack by herbivores and single herbivore attack. There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface. In our study, Brassica rapa roots were infested with root fly larvae (Delia radicum) and the shoots infested with Pieris brassicae, either singly or simultaneously, to study these root-shoot interactions. As an analytical platform, we used Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) to investigate VOCs over a 3 day time period. Our set-up allowed us to monitor root and shoot emissions concurrently on the same plant. Focus was placed on the sulfur-containing compounds; methanethiol, dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), because these compounds previously have been shown to be biologically active in the interactions of Brassica plants, herbivores, parasitoids, and predators, yet have received relatively little attention. The shoots of plants simultaneously infested with AG and belowground (BG) herbivores emitted higher levels of sulfur-containing compounds than plants with a single herbivore species present. In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore. The onset of root emissions was more rapid after damage than the onset of shoot emissions. The shoots of double infested plants also emitted higher levels of methanol. Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus