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Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Torrecillas S, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Pittman KA, Custódio M, Campo A, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M - Front Immunol (2015)

Bottom Line: There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns.Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth.However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variability on the posterior gut relative gene expression in relation to dietary treatment. The points correspond to the tanks and are colored according to their diet, being FO, fish oil; FOMOS, fish oil and MOS; SBO, soybean oil; SBOMOS, soybean oil and MOS.
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Figure 4: Principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variability on the posterior gut relative gene expression in relation to dietary treatment. The points correspond to the tanks and are colored according to their diet, being FO, fish oil; FOMOS, fish oil and MOS; SBO, soybean oil; SBOMOS, soybean oil and MOS.

Mentions: The principal component analysis (PCA) attributed 62.9% of the total variability on the posterior GALT-immune response in terms of relative gene expression to the dietary treatment (Figure 4). The first principal component (PC1) showed the influence of the dietary treatment on posterior gut gene expression and accounted for 41.84% of the total variability, PC1 axis separating FO-based diets from SBO diets. PC2 showed the influence of SBO or MOS addition to a FO diet without prebiotic on posterior gut relative gene expression and accounted for 21.08% of the total variability (Figure 4). Similarly the RDA indicated that the dietary treatment explains 47.64% of the total variability observed on posterior gut gene expression (P < 0.005). The first component (RDA1) explains 79.1% of the variability and cluster of all the genes, with exception of MHCII, on FO-based diets hemisphere. The rest of the variability (20.9%) is explained by the second component (RDA2) and clusters almost all genes related to cellular components on the axis upper space, where SBO and/or MOS where supplemented and the humoral genes on the lower axis space in relation to the absence of dietary SBO or MOS (Figure 5). This indicates that (I) SBO dietary inclusion seems to exert a stronger effect than dietary MOS when supplemented in combination, (II) fish fed FO-based diets react better to MOS supplementation than fish fed SBO-based diets, (III) fish gene expression up-regulation after dietary MOS for 60 days seems to be centralized in cellular components, and (IV) SBO supplementation caused an up-regulation of MHCII gene expression regardless of dietary MOS inclusion.


Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Torrecillas S, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Pittman KA, Custódio M, Campo A, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M - Front Immunol (2015)

Principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variability on the posterior gut relative gene expression in relation to dietary treatment. The points correspond to the tanks and are colored according to their diet, being FO, fish oil; FOMOS, fish oil and MOS; SBO, soybean oil; SBOMOS, soybean oil and MOS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525062&req=5

Figure 4: Principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variability on the posterior gut relative gene expression in relation to dietary treatment. The points correspond to the tanks and are colored according to their diet, being FO, fish oil; FOMOS, fish oil and MOS; SBO, soybean oil; SBOMOS, soybean oil and MOS.
Mentions: The principal component analysis (PCA) attributed 62.9% of the total variability on the posterior GALT-immune response in terms of relative gene expression to the dietary treatment (Figure 4). The first principal component (PC1) showed the influence of the dietary treatment on posterior gut gene expression and accounted for 41.84% of the total variability, PC1 axis separating FO-based diets from SBO diets. PC2 showed the influence of SBO or MOS addition to a FO diet without prebiotic on posterior gut relative gene expression and accounted for 21.08% of the total variability (Figure 4). Similarly the RDA indicated that the dietary treatment explains 47.64% of the total variability observed on posterior gut gene expression (P < 0.005). The first component (RDA1) explains 79.1% of the variability and cluster of all the genes, with exception of MHCII, on FO-based diets hemisphere. The rest of the variability (20.9%) is explained by the second component (RDA2) and clusters almost all genes related to cellular components on the axis upper space, where SBO and/or MOS where supplemented and the humoral genes on the lower axis space in relation to the absence of dietary SBO or MOS (Figure 5). This indicates that (I) SBO dietary inclusion seems to exert a stronger effect than dietary MOS when supplemented in combination, (II) fish fed FO-based diets react better to MOS supplementation than fish fed SBO-based diets, (III) fish gene expression up-regulation after dietary MOS for 60 days seems to be centralized in cellular components, and (IV) SBO supplementation caused an up-regulation of MHCII gene expression regardless of dietary MOS inclusion.

Bottom Line: There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns.Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth.However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus