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Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Torrecillas S, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Pittman KA, Custódio M, Campo A, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M - Front Immunol (2015)

Bottom Line: There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns.Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth.However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Cell density (%) depending on the tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 4.23e–14, F-test). Green color is SBO and blue FO. N = 36 fishes. (B) Total epithelium per mucous cell (μm2) depending on the tissue and the diet. Organs are significantly separated by a dotted line (P = 1.2e–11, F-test) being anterior and posterior gut in the left side, and skin in the right side of the line. Green color is soybean oil and blue fish oil. N = 36 fishes.
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Figure 3: (A) Cell density (%) depending on the tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 4.23e–14, F-test). Green color is SBO and blue FO. N = 36 fishes. (B) Total epithelium per mucous cell (μm2) depending on the tissue and the diet. Organs are significantly separated by a dotted line (P = 1.2e–11, F-test) being anterior and posterior gut in the left side, and skin in the right side of the line. Green color is soybean oil and blue fish oil. N = 36 fishes.

Mentions: The overall density of mucous cells in the epithelia was also affected by tissue. The posterior gut had a significantly higher density of mucous cells (P < 0.05), with about 10% of the mucosal epithelium composed of mucous cells compared to about 3.6% in the dorsolateral skin and 3.8% in the anterior gut. Within these tissues, the anterior gut shows a trend (P = 0.05) to lower mucous cell density in fish fed SBO than in fish fed FO, regardless of dietary MOS inclusion (Figure 3A).


Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Torrecillas S, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Pittman KA, Custódio M, Campo A, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M - Front Immunol (2015)

(A) Cell density (%) depending on the tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 4.23e–14, F-test). Green color is SBO and blue FO. N = 36 fishes. (B) Total epithelium per mucous cell (μm2) depending on the tissue and the diet. Organs are significantly separated by a dotted line (P = 1.2e–11, F-test) being anterior and posterior gut in the left side, and skin in the right side of the line. Green color is soybean oil and blue fish oil. N = 36 fishes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525062&req=5

Figure 3: (A) Cell density (%) depending on the tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 4.23e–14, F-test). Green color is SBO and blue FO. N = 36 fishes. (B) Total epithelium per mucous cell (μm2) depending on the tissue and the diet. Organs are significantly separated by a dotted line (P = 1.2e–11, F-test) being anterior and posterior gut in the left side, and skin in the right side of the line. Green color is soybean oil and blue fish oil. N = 36 fishes.
Mentions: The overall density of mucous cells in the epithelia was also affected by tissue. The posterior gut had a significantly higher density of mucous cells (P < 0.05), with about 10% of the mucosal epithelium composed of mucous cells compared to about 3.6% in the dorsolateral skin and 3.8% in the anterior gut. Within these tissues, the anterior gut shows a trend (P = 0.05) to lower mucous cell density in fish fed SBO than in fish fed FO, regardless of dietary MOS inclusion (Figure 3A).

Bottom Line: There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns.Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth.However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus