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Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Torrecillas S, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Pittman KA, Custódio M, Campo A, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M - Front Immunol (2015)

Bottom Line: There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns.Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth.However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Top left: Histological sections of anterior gut (left) and posterior gut (center) fed with (A) FO- and (B) SBO-based diets, stained in Alcian Blue-PAS. Top right: histological section of skin fed with fish oil and stained with Toluidine Blue (scale bar = 300 μm). Bottom: Mucous cell area (μm2) depending on tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 2e–16, F-test). Green color is soybean oil and blue color is fish oil. N = 36 fishes.
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Figure 2: Top left: Histological sections of anterior gut (left) and posterior gut (center) fed with (A) FO- and (B) SBO-based diets, stained in Alcian Blue-PAS. Top right: histological section of skin fed with fish oil and stained with Toluidine Blue (scale bar = 300 μm). Bottom: Mucous cell area (μm2) depending on tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 2e–16, F-test). Green color is soybean oil and blue color is fish oil. N = 36 fishes.

Mentions: In general, grand mean mucous cell areas patterns differed (P < 0.05) among tissues, with the largest mucous cells in the skin (170 μm2), followed by posterior gut (90 μm2), and the smallest in the anterior gut with an average of 82 μm2 (Figure 2). Additionally, there were significant differences in mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut where both SBO and dietary MOS induced smaller cell areas (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, the two dietary components interact in a manner such that the addition of MOS to a SBO-based diet increases the mucous cell size over the values shown in fish fed FO-based diet. Finally in the skin and anterior gut, no differences were found due to dietary oil source or MOS supplementation.


Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

Torrecillas S, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Pittman KA, Custódio M, Campo A, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M - Front Immunol (2015)

Top left: Histological sections of anterior gut (left) and posterior gut (center) fed with (A) FO- and (B) SBO-based diets, stained in Alcian Blue-PAS. Top right: histological section of skin fed with fish oil and stained with Toluidine Blue (scale bar = 300 μm). Bottom: Mucous cell area (μm2) depending on tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 2e–16, F-test). Green color is soybean oil and blue color is fish oil. N = 36 fishes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525062&req=5

Figure 2: Top left: Histological sections of anterior gut (left) and posterior gut (center) fed with (A) FO- and (B) SBO-based diets, stained in Alcian Blue-PAS. Top right: histological section of skin fed with fish oil and stained with Toluidine Blue (scale bar = 300 μm). Bottom: Mucous cell area (μm2) depending on tissue and diet. From left to right: anterior gut, posterior gut, and skin, differentiated significantly by a dotted line (P = 2e–16, F-test). Green color is soybean oil and blue color is fish oil. N = 36 fishes.
Mentions: In general, grand mean mucous cell areas patterns differed (P < 0.05) among tissues, with the largest mucous cells in the skin (170 μm2), followed by posterior gut (90 μm2), and the smallest in the anterior gut with an average of 82 μm2 (Figure 2). Additionally, there were significant differences in mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut where both SBO and dietary MOS induced smaller cell areas (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, the two dietary components interact in a manner such that the addition of MOS to a SBO-based diet increases the mucous cell size over the values shown in fish fed FO-based diet. Finally in the skin and anterior gut, no differences were found due to dietary oil source or MOS supplementation.

Bottom Line: There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns.Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth.However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura (GIA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Spain.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg(-1) dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced dietary n-3/n-6 ratio for an appropriate GALT-immune response against MOS in European sea bass juveniles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus