Limits...
Potential impacts of aquatic pollutants: sub-clinical antibiotic concentrations induce genome changes and promote antibiotic resistance.

Chow L, Waldron L, Gillings MR - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: These changes were observed in as few as five passages, despite the fact that the protocols used sample less than 0.3% of the genome, in turn suggesting much more widespread alterations to sequence and genome architecture.Experimental lines also displayed variant colony morphologies.The final MICs were significantly higher in some experimental lineages of P. protegens, suggesting that 1/10 the MIC induces de-novo mutation events that generate resistance phenotypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Emma Veritas Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University Sydney, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Antibiotics are disseminated into aquatic environments via human waste streams and agricultural run-off. Here they can persist at low, but biologically relevant, concentrations. Antibiotic pollution establishes a selection gradient for resistance and may also raise the frequency of events that generate resistance: point mutations; recombination; and lateral gene transfer. This study examined the response of bacteria to sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas protegens were exposed kanamycin, tetracycline or ciprofloxacin at 1/10 the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in a serial streaking experiment over 40 passages. Significant changes in rep-PCR fingerprints were noted in both species when exposed to sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations. These changes were observed in as few as five passages, despite the fact that the protocols used sample less than 0.3% of the genome, in turn suggesting much more widespread alterations to sequence and genome architecture. Experimental lines also displayed variant colony morphologies. The final MICs were significantly higher in some experimental lineages of P. protegens, suggesting that 1/10 the MIC induces de-novo mutation events that generate resistance phenotypes. The implications of these results are clear: exposure of the environmental microbiome to antibiotic pollution will induce similar changes, including generating newly resistant species that may be of significant concern for human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony morphology at generation 40.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525061&req=5

Figure 1: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony morphology at generation 40.

Mentions: Images captured of colonies at generation 40 show significant morphological changes between treatment groups. The three control lines of P. aeruginosa PA14 displayed no significant changes, kanamycin line 2, tetracycline lines 2 and 3, and ciprofloxacin line 3 exhibited significant changes to their colony morphology (Figure 1). The three control lines of P. protegens PF-5 displayed no significant changes, kanamycin line 3 and tetracycline line 3 exhibited significant morphological differences. The three ciprofloxacin lines were relatively unchanged (Figure S1). The three control lines and three tetracycline lines of P. protegens PF-5A had similar colonies. All three kanamycin lines had significantly changed colonies, as had lines 2 and 3 of the ciprofloxacin treatment (Figure S2).


Potential impacts of aquatic pollutants: sub-clinical antibiotic concentrations induce genome changes and promote antibiotic resistance.

Chow L, Waldron L, Gillings MR - Front Microbiol (2015)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony morphology at generation 40.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525061&req=5

Figure 1: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony morphology at generation 40.
Mentions: Images captured of colonies at generation 40 show significant morphological changes between treatment groups. The three control lines of P. aeruginosa PA14 displayed no significant changes, kanamycin line 2, tetracycline lines 2 and 3, and ciprofloxacin line 3 exhibited significant changes to their colony morphology (Figure 1). The three control lines of P. protegens PF-5 displayed no significant changes, kanamycin line 3 and tetracycline line 3 exhibited significant morphological differences. The three ciprofloxacin lines were relatively unchanged (Figure S1). The three control lines and three tetracycline lines of P. protegens PF-5A had similar colonies. All three kanamycin lines had significantly changed colonies, as had lines 2 and 3 of the ciprofloxacin treatment (Figure S2).

Bottom Line: These changes were observed in as few as five passages, despite the fact that the protocols used sample less than 0.3% of the genome, in turn suggesting much more widespread alterations to sequence and genome architecture.Experimental lines also displayed variant colony morphologies.The final MICs were significantly higher in some experimental lineages of P. protegens, suggesting that 1/10 the MIC induces de-novo mutation events that generate resistance phenotypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Emma Veritas Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University Sydney, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Antibiotics are disseminated into aquatic environments via human waste streams and agricultural run-off. Here they can persist at low, but biologically relevant, concentrations. Antibiotic pollution establishes a selection gradient for resistance and may also raise the frequency of events that generate resistance: point mutations; recombination; and lateral gene transfer. This study examined the response of bacteria to sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas protegens were exposed kanamycin, tetracycline or ciprofloxacin at 1/10 the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in a serial streaking experiment over 40 passages. Significant changes in rep-PCR fingerprints were noted in both species when exposed to sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations. These changes were observed in as few as five passages, despite the fact that the protocols used sample less than 0.3% of the genome, in turn suggesting much more widespread alterations to sequence and genome architecture. Experimental lines also displayed variant colony morphologies. The final MICs were significantly higher in some experimental lineages of P. protegens, suggesting that 1/10 the MIC induces de-novo mutation events that generate resistance phenotypes. The implications of these results are clear: exposure of the environmental microbiome to antibiotic pollution will induce similar changes, including generating newly resistant species that may be of significant concern for human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus