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An Asiatic Chironomid in Brazil: morphology, DNA barcode and bionomics.

Amora G, Hamada N, Fusari LM, Andrade-Souza V - Zookeys (2015)

Bottom Line: Bionomic characteristics of the Brazilian Chironomus population differ from the ones of Chironomuskiiensis from Japan, the only species in this species complex with bionomic information available.The Brazilian Chironomus population has a smaller size, the double of the number of eggs and inhabits oligotrophic water, in artificial container.Genetic distance between the Brazilian population and specimens in Group A suggests that it was recently introduced in Brazil, and that its country of origin is probably South Korea.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Coordenação de Biodiversidade - CBio, Laboratório de Citotaxonomia e Insetos Aquáticos, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
In most freshwater ecosystems, aquatic insects are dominant in terms of diversity; however, there is a disproportionately low number of records of alien species when compared to other freshwater organisms. The Chironomidae is one aquatic insect family that includes some examples of alien species around the world. During a study on aquatic insects in Amazonas state (Brazil), we collected specimens of Chironomidae that are similar, at the morphological level, to Chironomuskiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomusstriatipennis Kieffer, both with distributions restricted to Asia. The objectives of this study were to provide morphological information on this Chironomus population, to investigate its identity using DNA barcoding and, to provide bionomic information about this species. Chironomus DNA barcode data were obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) and, together with our data, were analyzed using the neighbor-joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates and the genetic distances were estimated using the Kimura-2-parameter. At the morphological level, the Brazilian population cannot be distinguished either from Chironomusstriatipennis or Chironomuskiiensis, configuring a species complex but, at the molecular level our studied population is placed in a clade together with Chironomusstriatipennis, from South Korea. Bionomic characteristics of the Brazilian Chironomus population differ from the ones of Chironomuskiiensis from Japan, the only species in this species complex with bionomic information available. The Brazilian Chironomus population has a smaller size, the double of the number of eggs and inhabits oligotrophic water, in artificial container. In the molecular analysis, populations of Chironomusstriatipennis and Chironomuskiiensis are placed in a clade, formed by two groups: Group A (which includes populations from both named species, from different Asiatic regions and our Brazilian population) and Group B (with populations of Chironomuskiiensis from Japan and South Korea). Genetic distance between the Brazilian population and specimens in Group A suggests that it was recently introduced in Brazil, and that its country of origin is probably South Korea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

NJ tree based on the COI sequences of the mtDNA of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) species. The sequence of Lipiniellafujiprimus was used as the outgroup. Bootstrap values > 50% are shown on branches. Accession numbers and countries are provided beside the species names. Species flagged with an asterisk (*) are neotropical species. Brazilian Chironomus population: Chironomus sp1BRA; Chironomus sp2BRA; Chironomus sp3BRA
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Figure 2: NJ tree based on the COI sequences of the mtDNA of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) species. The sequence of Lipiniellafujiprimus was used as the outgroup. Bootstrap values > 50% are shown on branches. Accession numbers and countries are provided beside the species names. Species flagged with an asterisk (*) are neotropical species. Brazilian Chironomus population: Chironomus sp1BRA; Chironomus sp2BRA; Chironomus sp3BRA

Mentions: In the neighbor-joining tree (Fig. 2), we observed that the Brazilian Chironomus population (Chironomus sp1BRA, Chironomus sp2BRA and Chironomus sp3BRA) grouped, with 94% bootstrap support, with others specimens of Chironomusstriatipennis and of Chironomuskiiensis from different regions of East Asia. The analysis resulted in two groups, each with 100% bootstrap support, which we named “Group A” and “Group B”. Group A is composed of the Brazilian Chironomus population and specimens identified as Chironomuskiiensis from South Korea and Japan and Chironomusstriatipennis from Malaysia and India. Group B included specimens identified as Chironomuskiiensis, also from South Korea and Japan.


An Asiatic Chironomid in Brazil: morphology, DNA barcode and bionomics.

Amora G, Hamada N, Fusari LM, Andrade-Souza V - Zookeys (2015)

NJ tree based on the COI sequences of the mtDNA of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) species. The sequence of Lipiniellafujiprimus was used as the outgroup. Bootstrap values > 50% are shown on branches. Accession numbers and countries are provided beside the species names. Species flagged with an asterisk (*) are neotropical species. Brazilian Chironomus population: Chironomus sp1BRA; Chironomus sp2BRA; Chironomus sp3BRA
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525028&req=5

Figure 2: NJ tree based on the COI sequences of the mtDNA of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) species. The sequence of Lipiniellafujiprimus was used as the outgroup. Bootstrap values > 50% are shown on branches. Accession numbers and countries are provided beside the species names. Species flagged with an asterisk (*) are neotropical species. Brazilian Chironomus population: Chironomus sp1BRA; Chironomus sp2BRA; Chironomus sp3BRA
Mentions: In the neighbor-joining tree (Fig. 2), we observed that the Brazilian Chironomus population (Chironomus sp1BRA, Chironomus sp2BRA and Chironomus sp3BRA) grouped, with 94% bootstrap support, with others specimens of Chironomusstriatipennis and of Chironomuskiiensis from different regions of East Asia. The analysis resulted in two groups, each with 100% bootstrap support, which we named “Group A” and “Group B”. Group A is composed of the Brazilian Chironomus population and specimens identified as Chironomuskiiensis from South Korea and Japan and Chironomusstriatipennis from Malaysia and India. Group B included specimens identified as Chironomuskiiensis, also from South Korea and Japan.

Bottom Line: Bionomic characteristics of the Brazilian Chironomus population differ from the ones of Chironomuskiiensis from Japan, the only species in this species complex with bionomic information available.The Brazilian Chironomus population has a smaller size, the double of the number of eggs and inhabits oligotrophic water, in artificial container.Genetic distance between the Brazilian population and specimens in Group A suggests that it was recently introduced in Brazil, and that its country of origin is probably South Korea.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Coordenação de Biodiversidade - CBio, Laboratório de Citotaxonomia e Insetos Aquáticos, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
In most freshwater ecosystems, aquatic insects are dominant in terms of diversity; however, there is a disproportionately low number of records of alien species when compared to other freshwater organisms. The Chironomidae is one aquatic insect family that includes some examples of alien species around the world. During a study on aquatic insects in Amazonas state (Brazil), we collected specimens of Chironomidae that are similar, at the morphological level, to Chironomuskiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomusstriatipennis Kieffer, both with distributions restricted to Asia. The objectives of this study were to provide morphological information on this Chironomus population, to investigate its identity using DNA barcoding and, to provide bionomic information about this species. Chironomus DNA barcode data were obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) and, together with our data, were analyzed using the neighbor-joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates and the genetic distances were estimated using the Kimura-2-parameter. At the morphological level, the Brazilian population cannot be distinguished either from Chironomusstriatipennis or Chironomuskiiensis, configuring a species complex but, at the molecular level our studied population is placed in a clade together with Chironomusstriatipennis, from South Korea. Bionomic characteristics of the Brazilian Chironomus population differ from the ones of Chironomuskiiensis from Japan, the only species in this species complex with bionomic information available. The Brazilian Chironomus population has a smaller size, the double of the number of eggs and inhabits oligotrophic water, in artificial container. In the molecular analysis, populations of Chironomusstriatipennis and Chironomuskiiensis are placed in a clade, formed by two groups: Group A (which includes populations from both named species, from different Asiatic regions and our Brazilian population) and Group B (with populations of Chironomuskiiensis from Japan and South Korea). Genetic distance between the Brazilian population and specimens in Group A suggests that it was recently introduced in Brazil, and that its country of origin is probably South Korea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus