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Porcine epidemic diarrhea: a review of current epidemiology and available vaccines.

Song D, Moon H, Kang B - Clin Exp Vaccine Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Although PEDV was first identified in Europe, it has resulted in significant economic losses in many Asian swine-raising countries, including Korea, China, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.Moreover, intercontinental transmission of PEDV has increased mortality rates in seronegative neonatal piglets, resulting in 10% loss of the US pig population.We also discuss PEDV vaccines and related issues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. PEDV can also cause diarrhea, agalactia, and abnormal reproductive cycles in pregnant sows. Although PEDV was first identified in Europe, it has resulted in significant economic losses in many Asian swine-raising countries, including Korea, China, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. However, from April 2013 to the present, major outbreaks of PEDV have been reported in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Moreover, intercontinental transmission of PEDV has increased mortality rates in seronegative neonatal piglets, resulting in 10% loss of the US pig population. The emergence and re-emergence of PEDV indicates that the virus is able to evade current vaccine strategies. Continuous emergence of multiple mutant strains from several regions has aggravated porcine epidemic diarrhea endemic conditions and highlighted the need for new vaccines based on the current circulating PEDV. Epidemic PEDV strains tend to be more pathogenic and cause increased death in pigs, thereby causing substantial financial losses for swine producers. In this review, we described the epidemiology of PEDV in several countries and present molecular characterization of current strains. We also discuss PEDV vaccines and related issues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photographic records of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) outbreaks. (A, B) During a 2006 outbreak on a commercial farm in Gimpo. South Korean, piglets <1 week of age died from severe watery diarrhoea after showing signs of dehydration. After the acute outbreak, piglets were anorectic, depressed, vomiting, and producing water faeces that did not contain any signs of blood. (C) Necropsies of deceased piglets from the Gimpo outbreak uncovered gross lesions in the small intestines, which were typically fluidic, distended, and yellow, containing a mass of curdled, undigested milk. Atrophy of the villi caused the walls of the small intestines to become thin and almost transparent. (D) Yellowish watery diarrhea in sucling piglets after acute infection of PEDV.
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Figure 1: Photographic records of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) outbreaks. (A, B) During a 2006 outbreak on a commercial farm in Gimpo. South Korean, piglets <1 week of age died from severe watery diarrhoea after showing signs of dehydration. After the acute outbreak, piglets were anorectic, depressed, vomiting, and producing water faeces that did not contain any signs of blood. (C) Necropsies of deceased piglets from the Gimpo outbreak uncovered gross lesions in the small intestines, which were typically fluidic, distended, and yellow, containing a mass of curdled, undigested milk. Atrophy of the villi caused the walls of the small intestines to become thin and almost transparent. (D) Yellowish watery diarrhea in sucling piglets after acute infection of PEDV.

Mentions: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a common type of viral enteritis in pigs that is caused by PED virus (PEDV). Consistent with the name of the disease, diarrhea is the major symptom of PED. Additionally, PED presents with various other clinical signs, including vomiting, anorexia, dehydration, and weight loss (Fig. 1) [1]. PEDV can infect pigs of any age, from neonates to sows or boars; however, the severity of PED in pigs differs according to age [2]. Importantly, PEDV infection in neonatal pigs commonly induces death from watery diarrhea and dehydration. Indeed, in a previous study, researchers stated that over 1,000,000 piglets have died from PEDV infection, with a death rate of 80%-100% [3]. Such high death rates are associated with huge economic losses.


Porcine epidemic diarrhea: a review of current epidemiology and available vaccines.

Song D, Moon H, Kang B - Clin Exp Vaccine Res (2015)

Photographic records of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) outbreaks. (A, B) During a 2006 outbreak on a commercial farm in Gimpo. South Korean, piglets <1 week of age died from severe watery diarrhoea after showing signs of dehydration. After the acute outbreak, piglets were anorectic, depressed, vomiting, and producing water faeces that did not contain any signs of blood. (C) Necropsies of deceased piglets from the Gimpo outbreak uncovered gross lesions in the small intestines, which were typically fluidic, distended, and yellow, containing a mass of curdled, undigested milk. Atrophy of the villi caused the walls of the small intestines to become thin and almost transparent. (D) Yellowish watery diarrhea in sucling piglets after acute infection of PEDV.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524901&req=5

Figure 1: Photographic records of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) outbreaks. (A, B) During a 2006 outbreak on a commercial farm in Gimpo. South Korean, piglets <1 week of age died from severe watery diarrhoea after showing signs of dehydration. After the acute outbreak, piglets were anorectic, depressed, vomiting, and producing water faeces that did not contain any signs of blood. (C) Necropsies of deceased piglets from the Gimpo outbreak uncovered gross lesions in the small intestines, which were typically fluidic, distended, and yellow, containing a mass of curdled, undigested milk. Atrophy of the villi caused the walls of the small intestines to become thin and almost transparent. (D) Yellowish watery diarrhea in sucling piglets after acute infection of PEDV.
Mentions: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a common type of viral enteritis in pigs that is caused by PED virus (PEDV). Consistent with the name of the disease, diarrhea is the major symptom of PED. Additionally, PED presents with various other clinical signs, including vomiting, anorexia, dehydration, and weight loss (Fig. 1) [1]. PEDV can infect pigs of any age, from neonates to sows or boars; however, the severity of PED in pigs differs according to age [2]. Importantly, PEDV infection in neonatal pigs commonly induces death from watery diarrhea and dehydration. Indeed, in a previous study, researchers stated that over 1,000,000 piglets have died from PEDV infection, with a death rate of 80%-100% [3]. Such high death rates are associated with huge economic losses.

Bottom Line: Although PEDV was first identified in Europe, it has resulted in significant economic losses in many Asian swine-raising countries, including Korea, China, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.Moreover, intercontinental transmission of PEDV has increased mortality rates in seronegative neonatal piglets, resulting in 10% loss of the US pig population.We also discuss PEDV vaccines and related issues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. PEDV can also cause diarrhea, agalactia, and abnormal reproductive cycles in pregnant sows. Although PEDV was first identified in Europe, it has resulted in significant economic losses in many Asian swine-raising countries, including Korea, China, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. However, from April 2013 to the present, major outbreaks of PEDV have been reported in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Moreover, intercontinental transmission of PEDV has increased mortality rates in seronegative neonatal piglets, resulting in 10% loss of the US pig population. The emergence and re-emergence of PEDV indicates that the virus is able to evade current vaccine strategies. Continuous emergence of multiple mutant strains from several regions has aggravated porcine epidemic diarrhea endemic conditions and highlighted the need for new vaccines based on the current circulating PEDV. Epidemic PEDV strains tend to be more pathogenic and cause increased death in pigs, thereby causing substantial financial losses for swine producers. In this review, we described the epidemiology of PEDV in several countries and present molecular characterization of current strains. We also discuss PEDV vaccines and related issues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus