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Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently.

Ziori E, Dienes Z - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants.The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge.The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Education and Psychology, School of Philosophy, University of Ioannina Ioannina, Greece.

ABSTRACT
The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants' conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean accuracy when males (A) and females (B) provided unconscious structural knowledge (i.e., intuition and familiarity) attributions in the four different stimulus categories. Error bars indicate ±1 SE. Asterisks denote significant differences from a chance level of 50% (∗∗p < 0.01; ∗p < 0.05).
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Figure 4: Mean accuracy when males (A) and females (B) provided unconscious structural knowledge (i.e., intuition and familiarity) attributions in the four different stimulus categories. Error bars indicate ±1 SE. Asterisks denote significant differences from a chance level of 50% (∗∗p < 0.01; ∗p < 0.05).

Mentions: The three-way analysis of accuracy for only intuition and familiarity attributions combined together revealed a three-way interaction, F(1,108) = 4.79, p = 0.031, = 0.04, H1BH(0,6) = 0.35, H2BH(0,6) = 3.52 (see Figure 4). The three-way interaction was decomposed into partial two-way interactions. The analysis of female participants’ data showed insensitive evidence for a gender of face by beauty two-way interaction, F(1,57) = 0.66, p = 0.42, = 0.01, H1BH(0,6) = 0.46, H2BH(0,6) = 1.19. Their overall accuracy for intuition and familiarity combined together (56%) exceeded chance, t(60) = 4.21, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001, BH(0,6) = 2754, providing evidence of unconscious structural knowledge.


Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently.

Ziori E, Dienes Z - Front Psychol (2015)

Mean accuracy when males (A) and females (B) provided unconscious structural knowledge (i.e., intuition and familiarity) attributions in the four different stimulus categories. Error bars indicate ±1 SE. Asterisks denote significant differences from a chance level of 50% (∗∗p < 0.01; ∗p < 0.05).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524893&req=5

Figure 4: Mean accuracy when males (A) and females (B) provided unconscious structural knowledge (i.e., intuition and familiarity) attributions in the four different stimulus categories. Error bars indicate ±1 SE. Asterisks denote significant differences from a chance level of 50% (∗∗p < 0.01; ∗p < 0.05).
Mentions: The three-way analysis of accuracy for only intuition and familiarity attributions combined together revealed a three-way interaction, F(1,108) = 4.79, p = 0.031, = 0.04, H1BH(0,6) = 0.35, H2BH(0,6) = 3.52 (see Figure 4). The three-way interaction was decomposed into partial two-way interactions. The analysis of female participants’ data showed insensitive evidence for a gender of face by beauty two-way interaction, F(1,57) = 0.66, p = 0.42, = 0.01, H1BH(0,6) = 0.46, H2BH(0,6) = 1.19. Their overall accuracy for intuition and familiarity combined together (56%) exceeded chance, t(60) = 4.21, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001, BH(0,6) = 2754, providing evidence of unconscious structural knowledge.

Bottom Line: It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants.The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge.The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Education and Psychology, School of Philosophy, University of Ioannina Ioannina, Greece.

ABSTRACT
The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants' conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus