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Lysis to Kill: Evaluation of the Lytic Abilities, and Genomics of Nine Bacteriophages Infective for Gordonia spp. and Their Potential Use in Activated Sludge Foam Biocontrol.

Dyson ZA, Tucci J, Seviour RJ, Petrovski S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time.Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements.Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Nine bacteriophages (phages) infective for members of the genus Gordonia were isolated from wastewater and other natural water environments using standard enrichment techniques. The majority were broad host range phages targeting more than one Gordonia species. When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time. Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements. Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700. TEM sample preparation techniques were developed to view both attachment and replication stages of phage infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stages in Gordonia phage infection cycles.(A) Attachment stage of phage infection cycle between phage GMA6 and host Gordonia malaquae strain CON67. Scale = 200 nm. (B) Replication of phage GTE6 inside G. terrae strain CON34 cells prior to cell lysis. Arrows indicate phage replicated inside bacterial cells. Scale = 200 nm.
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pone.0134512.g002: Stages in Gordonia phage infection cycles.(A) Attachment stage of phage infection cycle between phage GMA6 and host Gordonia malaquae strain CON67. Scale = 200 nm. (B) Replication of phage GTE6 inside G. terrae strain CON34 cells prior to cell lysis. Arrows indicate phage replicated inside bacterial cells. Scale = 200 nm.

Mentions: All phages examined by TEM had both the isometric type B1 capsids (~ 37 to ~ 63 nm in diameter) and long, non-contractile tails (~ 85 to ~ 474 nm long) characteristic of members of the family Siphoviridae. Phage GMA3 was not examined by TEM, but based on its genome sequence which contained a gene encoding a long tape measure protein and its dsDNA genome, it too is most likely to be a member of the Siphoviridae [19]. Further details are provided in Fig 1, and Table 2. With TEM, the morphology of phage GMA6 was not that expected of a Siphoviridae member, since its tail appeared to be uncharacteristically thick and rigid (Fig 1). To resolve this concern, phage GMA6 virions were exposed briefly to G. malaquae strain CON67, it’s isolating host, and then examined by TEM. Images showed clearly (Fig 2a) that its phage tail can be flexible, confirming it as a Siphoviridae member. Furthermore, TEM (Fig 2a) shows that virion attachment can involve many phages simultaneously. Whether superinfections where more than one phage genome successfully invades the host cell, was not explored. We could also visualize post replication mature phage progeny within the host cell, thus Fig 2b shows mature GTE6 virions inside the host cells, prior to cell lysis and release of phage progeny.


Lysis to Kill: Evaluation of the Lytic Abilities, and Genomics of Nine Bacteriophages Infective for Gordonia spp. and Their Potential Use in Activated Sludge Foam Biocontrol.

Dyson ZA, Tucci J, Seviour RJ, Petrovski S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Stages in Gordonia phage infection cycles.(A) Attachment stage of phage infection cycle between phage GMA6 and host Gordonia malaquae strain CON67. Scale = 200 nm. (B) Replication of phage GTE6 inside G. terrae strain CON34 cells prior to cell lysis. Arrows indicate phage replicated inside bacterial cells. Scale = 200 nm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524720&req=5

pone.0134512.g002: Stages in Gordonia phage infection cycles.(A) Attachment stage of phage infection cycle between phage GMA6 and host Gordonia malaquae strain CON67. Scale = 200 nm. (B) Replication of phage GTE6 inside G. terrae strain CON34 cells prior to cell lysis. Arrows indicate phage replicated inside bacterial cells. Scale = 200 nm.
Mentions: All phages examined by TEM had both the isometric type B1 capsids (~ 37 to ~ 63 nm in diameter) and long, non-contractile tails (~ 85 to ~ 474 nm long) characteristic of members of the family Siphoviridae. Phage GMA3 was not examined by TEM, but based on its genome sequence which contained a gene encoding a long tape measure protein and its dsDNA genome, it too is most likely to be a member of the Siphoviridae [19]. Further details are provided in Fig 1, and Table 2. With TEM, the morphology of phage GMA6 was not that expected of a Siphoviridae member, since its tail appeared to be uncharacteristically thick and rigid (Fig 1). To resolve this concern, phage GMA6 virions were exposed briefly to G. malaquae strain CON67, it’s isolating host, and then examined by TEM. Images showed clearly (Fig 2a) that its phage tail can be flexible, confirming it as a Siphoviridae member. Furthermore, TEM (Fig 2a) shows that virion attachment can involve many phages simultaneously. Whether superinfections where more than one phage genome successfully invades the host cell, was not explored. We could also visualize post replication mature phage progeny within the host cell, thus Fig 2b shows mature GTE6 virions inside the host cells, prior to cell lysis and release of phage progeny.

Bottom Line: When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time.Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements.Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Nine bacteriophages (phages) infective for members of the genus Gordonia were isolated from wastewater and other natural water environments using standard enrichment techniques. The majority were broad host range phages targeting more than one Gordonia species. When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time. Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements. Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700. TEM sample preparation techniques were developed to view both attachment and replication stages of phage infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus