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Two Mitochondrial Barcodes for one Biological Species: The Case of European Kuhl's Pipistrelles (Chiroptera).

Andriollo T, Naciri Y, Ruedi M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species.Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion.These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève, BP 6434, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland; Université de Genève, Faculté des Sciences, Section de biologie, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a Western Palaearctic species of bat that exhibits several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages across its range. These lineages could represent cryptic species or merely ancient polymorphism, but no nuclear markers have been studied so far to properly assess the taxonomic status of these lineages. We examined here two lineages occurring in Western Europe, and used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers to measure degrees of genetic isolation between bats carrying them. The sampling focused on an area of strict lineage sympatry in Switzerland but also included bats from further south, in North Africa. All individuals were barcoded for the COI gene to identify their mitochondrial lineages and five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to cluster them according to their nuclear genotypes. Despite this low number of nuclear markers, all North African nuclear genotypes were grouped in a highly distinct subpopulation when compared with European samples sharing the same mitochondrial barcodes. The reverse situation prevailed in Switzerland where bats carrying distinct barcodes had similar nuclear genotypes. There was a weak east/west nuclear structure of populations, but this was independent of mitochondrial lineages as bats carrying either variant were completely admixed. Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species. We argue that these distinct barcodes evolved in allopatry and came recently into secondary contact in an area of admixture north of the Alps. Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion. These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maps of population membership probability to each of the three clusters inferred by Geneland.This analysis includes 108 Kuhl’s pipistrelles for which both multilocus genotypes and geolocation was available. The outlines of the European and North African landmasses are overlaid in grey to illustrate the approximate location of samples. Black dots identify the individuals’ location. x and y coordinates represent longitude and latitude, respectively.
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pone.0134881.g006: Maps of population membership probability to each of the three clusters inferred by Geneland.This analysis includes 108 Kuhl’s pipistrelles for which both multilocus genotypes and geolocation was available. The outlines of the European and North African landmasses are overlaid in grey to illustrate the approximate location of samples. Black dots identify the individuals’ location. x and y coordinates represent longitude and latitude, respectively.

Mentions: Given the weak but noticeable overall differences in allelic composition at the five nuclear loci between individuals within Europe, we repeated this clustering analysis by integrating the geographical location into the assignment process, using Geneland. By taking the geographic information into account, the most likely number of populations appeared to be K = 3. As in Structure, the North African pipistrelles were clearly separated as one cluster, while the European samples were split into two parapatric subpopulations. The border between these two subpopulations runs across Switzerland (Fig 6), and separates individuals from mainland France and western Switzerland from those sampled in eastern Switzerland and Corsica. The map showing the membership probability of individuals to the three clusters inferred by Geneland illustrates this spatial pattern (Fig 6). The fixation indices within (FIS) and between (FST) the three subpopulations are summarized in Table 2 and confirm the very strong structure due to the Mediterranean sea (FST = 24–31% of the total variance explained) compared to that found within Europe (FST lower than 5%). FST values further suggest that North African samples are more distantly related to those from Western Europe (FST = 31%) than to those from further east (FST = 24%).


Two Mitochondrial Barcodes for one Biological Species: The Case of European Kuhl's Pipistrelles (Chiroptera).

Andriollo T, Naciri Y, Ruedi M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Maps of population membership probability to each of the three clusters inferred by Geneland.This analysis includes 108 Kuhl’s pipistrelles for which both multilocus genotypes and geolocation was available. The outlines of the European and North African landmasses are overlaid in grey to illustrate the approximate location of samples. Black dots identify the individuals’ location. x and y coordinates represent longitude and latitude, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524706&req=5

pone.0134881.g006: Maps of population membership probability to each of the three clusters inferred by Geneland.This analysis includes 108 Kuhl’s pipistrelles for which both multilocus genotypes and geolocation was available. The outlines of the European and North African landmasses are overlaid in grey to illustrate the approximate location of samples. Black dots identify the individuals’ location. x and y coordinates represent longitude and latitude, respectively.
Mentions: Given the weak but noticeable overall differences in allelic composition at the five nuclear loci between individuals within Europe, we repeated this clustering analysis by integrating the geographical location into the assignment process, using Geneland. By taking the geographic information into account, the most likely number of populations appeared to be K = 3. As in Structure, the North African pipistrelles were clearly separated as one cluster, while the European samples were split into two parapatric subpopulations. The border between these two subpopulations runs across Switzerland (Fig 6), and separates individuals from mainland France and western Switzerland from those sampled in eastern Switzerland and Corsica. The map showing the membership probability of individuals to the three clusters inferred by Geneland illustrates this spatial pattern (Fig 6). The fixation indices within (FIS) and between (FST) the three subpopulations are summarized in Table 2 and confirm the very strong structure due to the Mediterranean sea (FST = 24–31% of the total variance explained) compared to that found within Europe (FST lower than 5%). FST values further suggest that North African samples are more distantly related to those from Western Europe (FST = 31%) than to those from further east (FST = 24%).

Bottom Line: Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species.Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion.These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève, BP 6434, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland; Université de Genève, Faculté des Sciences, Section de biologie, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a Western Palaearctic species of bat that exhibits several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages across its range. These lineages could represent cryptic species or merely ancient polymorphism, but no nuclear markers have been studied so far to properly assess the taxonomic status of these lineages. We examined here two lineages occurring in Western Europe, and used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers to measure degrees of genetic isolation between bats carrying them. The sampling focused on an area of strict lineage sympatry in Switzerland but also included bats from further south, in North Africa. All individuals were barcoded for the COI gene to identify their mitochondrial lineages and five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to cluster them according to their nuclear genotypes. Despite this low number of nuclear markers, all North African nuclear genotypes were grouped in a highly distinct subpopulation when compared with European samples sharing the same mitochondrial barcodes. The reverse situation prevailed in Switzerland where bats carrying distinct barcodes had similar nuclear genotypes. There was a weak east/west nuclear structure of populations, but this was independent of mitochondrial lineages as bats carrying either variant were completely admixed. Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species. We argue that these distinct barcodes evolved in allopatry and came recently into secondary contact in an area of admixture north of the Alps. Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion. These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus