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Two Mitochondrial Barcodes for one Biological Species: The Case of European Kuhl's Pipistrelles (Chiroptera).

Andriollo T, Naciri Y, Ruedi M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species.Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion.These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève, BP 6434, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland; Université de Genève, Faculté des Sciences, Section de biologie, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a Western Palaearctic species of bat that exhibits several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages across its range. These lineages could represent cryptic species or merely ancient polymorphism, but no nuclear markers have been studied so far to properly assess the taxonomic status of these lineages. We examined here two lineages occurring in Western Europe, and used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers to measure degrees of genetic isolation between bats carrying them. The sampling focused on an area of strict lineage sympatry in Switzerland but also included bats from further south, in North Africa. All individuals were barcoded for the COI gene to identify their mitochondrial lineages and five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to cluster them according to their nuclear genotypes. Despite this low number of nuclear markers, all North African nuclear genotypes were grouped in a highly distinct subpopulation when compared with European samples sharing the same mitochondrial barcodes. The reverse situation prevailed in Switzerland where bats carrying distinct barcodes had similar nuclear genotypes. There was a weak east/west nuclear structure of populations, but this was independent of mitochondrial lineages as bats carrying either variant were completely admixed. Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species. We argue that these distinct barcodes evolved in allopatry and came recently into secondary contact in an area of admixture north of the Alps. Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion. These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Median-joining network of COI haplotypes (384 bp) from Switzerland and neighbouring France.This network is restricted to 84 P. kuhlii that were sampled within a radius of 40 km, i.e. within flying distance for these bats. Each variant is represented as a circle, the area of which is proportional to the number of individuals sharing this haplotype. Transversal bars indicate one mutation between haplotypes and black dots symbolize the reconstructed missing haplotypes. Red and blue frames correspond to the Western and Eastern lineages, respectively.
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pone.0134881.g004: Median-joining network of COI haplotypes (384 bp) from Switzerland and neighbouring France.This network is restricted to 84 P. kuhlii that were sampled within a radius of 40 km, i.e. within flying distance for these bats. Each variant is represented as a circle, the area of which is proportional to the number of individuals sharing this haplotype. Transversal bars indicate one mutation between haplotypes and black dots symbolize the reconstructed missing haplotypes. Red and blue frames correspond to the Western and Eastern lineages, respectively.

Mentions: The phylogeny inferred from partial cyt-b sequences showed no resolution (<50% posterior probability) for basal nodes within P. kuhlii (Fig 3). Although this analysis was not designed to provide a solid phylogenetic framework, the resulting tree indeed supported the four main lineages recovered in more comprehensive molecular surveys [16, 20]. The Eastern lineage was the least supported (62% posterior probability, PP), the other ones had PP over 90%. European individuals used in this study were either part of the Western or the Eastern lineages. None of them were related to the “maderensis” or to the “lepidus” lineages. Likewise, specimens from North Africa (including the deserti morphotype [8, 13]) belonged to the Eastern lineage. As any other Kuhl's pipistrelles sequenced only for the CO1 gene were either identical or within two mutations of the reference specimens (Fig 4), their lineage assignment was trivial.


Two Mitochondrial Barcodes for one Biological Species: The Case of European Kuhl's Pipistrelles (Chiroptera).

Andriollo T, Naciri Y, Ruedi M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Median-joining network of COI haplotypes (384 bp) from Switzerland and neighbouring France.This network is restricted to 84 P. kuhlii that were sampled within a radius of 40 km, i.e. within flying distance for these bats. Each variant is represented as a circle, the area of which is proportional to the number of individuals sharing this haplotype. Transversal bars indicate one mutation between haplotypes and black dots symbolize the reconstructed missing haplotypes. Red and blue frames correspond to the Western and Eastern lineages, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524706&req=5

pone.0134881.g004: Median-joining network of COI haplotypes (384 bp) from Switzerland and neighbouring France.This network is restricted to 84 P. kuhlii that were sampled within a radius of 40 km, i.e. within flying distance for these bats. Each variant is represented as a circle, the area of which is proportional to the number of individuals sharing this haplotype. Transversal bars indicate one mutation between haplotypes and black dots symbolize the reconstructed missing haplotypes. Red and blue frames correspond to the Western and Eastern lineages, respectively.
Mentions: The phylogeny inferred from partial cyt-b sequences showed no resolution (<50% posterior probability) for basal nodes within P. kuhlii (Fig 3). Although this analysis was not designed to provide a solid phylogenetic framework, the resulting tree indeed supported the four main lineages recovered in more comprehensive molecular surveys [16, 20]. The Eastern lineage was the least supported (62% posterior probability, PP), the other ones had PP over 90%. European individuals used in this study were either part of the Western or the Eastern lineages. None of them were related to the “maderensis” or to the “lepidus” lineages. Likewise, specimens from North Africa (including the deserti morphotype [8, 13]) belonged to the Eastern lineage. As any other Kuhl's pipistrelles sequenced only for the CO1 gene were either identical or within two mutations of the reference specimens (Fig 4), their lineage assignment was trivial.

Bottom Line: Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species.Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion.These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève, BP 6434, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland; Université de Genève, Faculté des Sciences, Section de biologie, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a Western Palaearctic species of bat that exhibits several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages across its range. These lineages could represent cryptic species or merely ancient polymorphism, but no nuclear markers have been studied so far to properly assess the taxonomic status of these lineages. We examined here two lineages occurring in Western Europe, and used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers to measure degrees of genetic isolation between bats carrying them. The sampling focused on an area of strict lineage sympatry in Switzerland but also included bats from further south, in North Africa. All individuals were barcoded for the COI gene to identify their mitochondrial lineages and five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to cluster them according to their nuclear genotypes. Despite this low number of nuclear markers, all North African nuclear genotypes were grouped in a highly distinct subpopulation when compared with European samples sharing the same mitochondrial barcodes. The reverse situation prevailed in Switzerland where bats carrying distinct barcodes had similar nuclear genotypes. There was a weak east/west nuclear structure of populations, but this was independent of mitochondrial lineages as bats carrying either variant were completely admixed. Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species. We argue that these distinct barcodes evolved in allopatry and came recently into secondary contact in an area of admixture north of the Alps. Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion. These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus