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Identification of Candidate Coral Pathogens on White Band Disease-Infected Staghorn Coral.

Gignoux-Wolfsohn SA, Vollmer SV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities.A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales.In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, Nahant, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bacterial diseases affecting scleractinian corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs, yet we still have a limited understanding of the bacteria associated with coral diseases. White band disease is a bacterial disease that affects the two Caribbean acroporid corals, the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmate. Species of Vibrio and Rickettsia have both been identified as putative WBD pathogens. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased A. cervicornis collected from four field sites during two different years. We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities. Using a combination of multivariate analyses, we identified community-level changes between diseased and healthy corals in both the field-collected and tank-exposed datasets. We then identified changes in the abundances of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between diseased and healthy corals. By comparing the diseased and healthy-associated bacteria in field-collected and tank-exposed corals, we were able to identify 16 healthy-associated OTUs and 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs, which are good candidates for putative WBD pathogens. A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales. In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Taxonomic classification on the level of order of OTUs that are significantly more or less abundant in diseased corals compared to healthy across both tank-exposed and field-collected corals.Tier 1 consists of those OTUs that did not differ significantly across site and year, tier 2 consists of OTUs that differed significantly due to disease state and site and/or year.
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pone.0134416.g003: Taxonomic classification on the level of order of OTUs that are significantly more or less abundant in diseased corals compared to healthy across both tank-exposed and field-collected corals.Tier 1 consists of those OTUs that did not differ significantly across site and year, tier 2 consists of OTUs that differed significantly due to disease state and site and/or year.

Mentions: By comparing disease and healthy-associated OTUs in the field-collected dataset to those in the tank-exposed dataset, we identified 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs (i.e. more abundant in diseased corals) and 16 consistently healthy-associated OTUs (i.e. more abundant in healthy corals) and classified them by order (Fig 3). We further narrowed the list of consistently disease- or healthy-associated OTUs by dividing them into two tiers: tier 1 consists of those OTUs that differed significantly by disease state but not by site or year, and tier 2 consists of those OTUs that differed by disease state as well as by site or year (i.e. were significantly different in the DESeq model ~disease state:site or ~disease state:year). We identified 12 tier 2 OTUs: seven associated with diseased corals and two associated with healthy corals. Disease-associated tier 2 OTUs consisted of seven OTUs that differed by year (two belonging to Flavobacteriales, two Rhodobacterales, one Alteromonadales, one Oceanospirillales, one unidentified) and two OTUs that differed by both year and site (one belonging to the phylum Tenericutes and one unidentified). Healthy-associated tier 2 OTUs consisted of two OTUs that differed by site (belonging to the orders Burkholderales and Pseudomonadales) and one OTU that differed by both year and site (Saprospirales).


Identification of Candidate Coral Pathogens on White Band Disease-Infected Staghorn Coral.

Gignoux-Wolfsohn SA, Vollmer SV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Taxonomic classification on the level of order of OTUs that are significantly more or less abundant in diseased corals compared to healthy across both tank-exposed and field-collected corals.Tier 1 consists of those OTUs that did not differ significantly across site and year, tier 2 consists of OTUs that differed significantly due to disease state and site and/or year.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524643&req=5

pone.0134416.g003: Taxonomic classification on the level of order of OTUs that are significantly more or less abundant in diseased corals compared to healthy across both tank-exposed and field-collected corals.Tier 1 consists of those OTUs that did not differ significantly across site and year, tier 2 consists of OTUs that differed significantly due to disease state and site and/or year.
Mentions: By comparing disease and healthy-associated OTUs in the field-collected dataset to those in the tank-exposed dataset, we identified 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs (i.e. more abundant in diseased corals) and 16 consistently healthy-associated OTUs (i.e. more abundant in healthy corals) and classified them by order (Fig 3). We further narrowed the list of consistently disease- or healthy-associated OTUs by dividing them into two tiers: tier 1 consists of those OTUs that differed significantly by disease state but not by site or year, and tier 2 consists of those OTUs that differed by disease state as well as by site or year (i.e. were significantly different in the DESeq model ~disease state:site or ~disease state:year). We identified 12 tier 2 OTUs: seven associated with diseased corals and two associated with healthy corals. Disease-associated tier 2 OTUs consisted of seven OTUs that differed by year (two belonging to Flavobacteriales, two Rhodobacterales, one Alteromonadales, one Oceanospirillales, one unidentified) and two OTUs that differed by both year and site (one belonging to the phylum Tenericutes and one unidentified). Healthy-associated tier 2 OTUs consisted of two OTUs that differed by site (belonging to the orders Burkholderales and Pseudomonadales) and one OTU that differed by both year and site (Saprospirales).

Bottom Line: We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities.A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales.In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, Nahant, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bacterial diseases affecting scleractinian corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs, yet we still have a limited understanding of the bacteria associated with coral diseases. White band disease is a bacterial disease that affects the two Caribbean acroporid corals, the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmate. Species of Vibrio and Rickettsia have both been identified as putative WBD pathogens. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased A. cervicornis collected from four field sites during two different years. We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities. Using a combination of multivariate analyses, we identified community-level changes between diseased and healthy corals in both the field-collected and tank-exposed datasets. We then identified changes in the abundances of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between diseased and healthy corals. By comparing the diseased and healthy-associated bacteria in field-collected and tank-exposed corals, we were able to identify 16 healthy-associated OTUs and 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs, which are good candidates for putative WBD pathogens. A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales. In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus