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Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

Sinha AK, AbdElgawad H, Zinta G, Dasan AF, Rasoloniriana R, Asard H, Blust R, De Boeck G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and reduced ascorbate (ASC) content.The present findings exemplify that in fed fish single factors and a combination of HEA exposure and reduced seawater salinities (upto 10 ppt) were insufficient to cause oxidative damage due to the highly competent antioxidant system compared to fasted fish.Overall, our results indicate that the oxidative stress mediated by the experimental conditions were exacerbated during starvation, and also suggest that feed deprivation particularly at reduced seawater salinities can instigate fish more susceptible to ammonia toxicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and reduced ascorbate (ASC) content. On the contrary, fasted fish could not activate many of these protective systems and rely mainly on CAT and ASC dependent pathways as antioxidative sentinels. The present findings exemplify that in fed fish single factors and a combination of HEA exposure and reduced seawater salinities (upto 10 ppt) were insufficient to cause oxidative damage due to the highly competent antioxidant system compared to fasted fish. However, the impact of HEA exposure at a hypo-saline environment (2.5 ppt) also defied antioxidant defence system in fed fish, suggesting this combined factor is beyond the tolerance range for both feeding groups. Overall, our results indicate that the oxidative stress mediated by the experimental conditions were exacerbated during starvation, and also suggest that feed deprivation particularly at reduced seawater salinities can instigate fish more susceptible to ammonia toxicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Superoxide dismutase activity.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (units SOD/mg protein) in liver of fed and fasted fish during acclimation to different salinities and exposure to HEA. Values are mean ± S.E. Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference between the ammonia exposed fish and its respective control at each salinity (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01), bullet (•) indicates a significant difference between experimental salinities (20 ppt -2.5 ppt) and the 32 ppt-acclimated fish at the same sampling period (•P < 0.05), dagger (†) denotes the significant difference between fed fish and its respective fasted fish counterpart (†P < 0.05).
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pone.0135091.g005: Superoxide dismutase activity.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (units SOD/mg protein) in liver of fed and fasted fish during acclimation to different salinities and exposure to HEA. Values are mean ± S.E. Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference between the ammonia exposed fish and its respective control at each salinity (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01), bullet (•) indicates a significant difference between experimental salinities (20 ppt -2.5 ppt) and the 32 ppt-acclimated fish at the same sampling period (•P < 0.05), dagger (†) denotes the significant difference between fed fish and its respective fasted fish counterpart (†P < 0.05).

Mentions: SOD activity in both feeding groups augmented in response to salinity reduction alone (Fig 5). A significant increment of 41% and 35% respectively was noted for 10 ppt and 2.5 ppt control fed fish relative to the 32 ppt acclimated fish while in fasted fish, a momentous increment (41%, P < 0.05) was seen at 2.5 ppt. HEA exposure in 32 ppt-2.5 ppt acclimated fed and fasted fish induced an increase in SOD activity (Fig 5). In fed fish, a significant increment was recorded from 48 h-84 h onwards; such increment was postponed in fasted fish and became prominent only at the last exposure period (except for 10 ppt). The effect of feeding during HEA exposure was seen at the lower salinity (10 ppt); SOD activity in control fed fish augmented by 35% (P < 0.05) compared to their fasted counterpart.


Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

Sinha AK, AbdElgawad H, Zinta G, Dasan AF, Rasoloniriana R, Asard H, Blust R, De Boeck G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Superoxide dismutase activity.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (units SOD/mg protein) in liver of fed and fasted fish during acclimation to different salinities and exposure to HEA. Values are mean ± S.E. Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference between the ammonia exposed fish and its respective control at each salinity (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01), bullet (•) indicates a significant difference between experimental salinities (20 ppt -2.5 ppt) and the 32 ppt-acclimated fish at the same sampling period (•P < 0.05), dagger (†) denotes the significant difference between fed fish and its respective fasted fish counterpart (†P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524602&req=5

pone.0135091.g005: Superoxide dismutase activity.Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (units SOD/mg protein) in liver of fed and fasted fish during acclimation to different salinities and exposure to HEA. Values are mean ± S.E. Asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference between the ammonia exposed fish and its respective control at each salinity (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01), bullet (•) indicates a significant difference between experimental salinities (20 ppt -2.5 ppt) and the 32 ppt-acclimated fish at the same sampling period (•P < 0.05), dagger (†) denotes the significant difference between fed fish and its respective fasted fish counterpart (†P < 0.05).
Mentions: SOD activity in both feeding groups augmented in response to salinity reduction alone (Fig 5). A significant increment of 41% and 35% respectively was noted for 10 ppt and 2.5 ppt control fed fish relative to the 32 ppt acclimated fish while in fasted fish, a momentous increment (41%, P < 0.05) was seen at 2.5 ppt. HEA exposure in 32 ppt-2.5 ppt acclimated fed and fasted fish induced an increase in SOD activity (Fig 5). In fed fish, a significant increment was recorded from 48 h-84 h onwards; such increment was postponed in fasted fish and became prominent only at the last exposure period (except for 10 ppt). The effect of feeding during HEA exposure was seen at the lower salinity (10 ppt); SOD activity in control fed fish augmented by 35% (P < 0.05) compared to their fasted counterpart.

Bottom Line: Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and reduced ascorbate (ASC) content.The present findings exemplify that in fed fish single factors and a combination of HEA exposure and reduced seawater salinities (upto 10 ppt) were insufficient to cause oxidative damage due to the highly competent antioxidant system compared to fasted fish.Overall, our results indicate that the oxidative stress mediated by the experimental conditions were exacerbated during starvation, and also suggest that feed deprivation particularly at reduced seawater salinities can instigate fish more susceptible to ammonia toxicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and reduced ascorbate (ASC) content. On the contrary, fasted fish could not activate many of these protective systems and rely mainly on CAT and ASC dependent pathways as antioxidative sentinels. The present findings exemplify that in fed fish single factors and a combination of HEA exposure and reduced seawater salinities (upto 10 ppt) were insufficient to cause oxidative damage due to the highly competent antioxidant system compared to fasted fish. However, the impact of HEA exposure at a hypo-saline environment (2.5 ppt) also defied antioxidant defence system in fed fish, suggesting this combined factor is beyond the tolerance range for both feeding groups. Overall, our results indicate that the oxidative stress mediated by the experimental conditions were exacerbated during starvation, and also suggest that feed deprivation particularly at reduced seawater salinities can instigate fish more susceptible to ammonia toxicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus