Limits...
Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility.

Taylor PW - Infect Drug Resist (2015)

Bottom Line: Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection.The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms.This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Universit y College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Internal complexity of the ISS.Notes: (A) NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment at the Light Microscopy Module. (B) Expedition 22 flight engineer Tim Creamer works with flex hoses in the ISS’s US Destiny laboratory. (C) Using a vacuum cleaner. Courtesy of NASA.Abbreviation: ISS, International Space Station.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524529&req=5

f1-idr-8-249: Internal complexity of the ISS.Notes: (A) NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment at the Light Microscopy Module. (B) Expedition 22 flight engineer Tim Creamer works with flex hoses in the ISS’s US Destiny laboratory. (C) Using a vacuum cleaner. Courtesy of NASA.Abbreviation: ISS, International Space Station.

Mentions: A greater microbial risk to crew wellbeing will come from their commensular flora, which will inevitably colonize the spacecraft, and from microbes originating from onboard supplies of air, food, and water. For example, it was reported that potable water generated by the fuel cells aboard Space Shuttle flights was commonly contaminated with very low levels of Burkholderia cepacia and other problematical bacteria.67 Similarly, potable water brought from ground sources and stored aboard Mir67 or the ISS68 tended to display higher bacterial counts than reclaimed humidity condensate. Future extended duration missions are expected to employ microorganisms for solid waste remediation and as a food source.67 On such missions, onboard cultivation of plants as food or as a component of bioregenerative life-support systems together with transportation of associated agricultural materials will further contribute to microbial complexity within such closed environments. The extent and complexity of microbial contamination will increase with time away. Although the potential health impact from the development of diverse microbial populations is unclear, these findings emphasize that microbial monitoring and vessel disinfection are significant factors to be taken into consideration in habitat design, engineering, and operation of all spacecraft. Threats may come not only from bacteria but also from fungi; dust in HEPA filters from the US laboratory aboard the ISS contained a wide range of potentially pathogenic molds such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger and moderate toxin producers such as Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium brevicompactum.69 Fifteen years of continuous human occupation of the ISS has made the station an excellent test bed for the prediction of microbiological problems that will be encountered during future deep space exploration missions. The approach to microbiological risk on the ISS is one of the prevention rather than reliance on in-flight solutions, and highly efficient air filtration systems, microbiological monitoring, and features to minimize the accumulation of moisture have been incorporated into its design.67 Nevertheless, the structural and electronic complexities of the various modules that comprise the ISS are so high that routine cleaning of surfaces represents a major “housekeeping” challenge (Figure 1). The initial colonization of surfaces on board the Russian segment of the ISS has recently been investigated:70 polymeric materials such as cable-labeling polyimide and the flame-resistant aramid Nomex® were particularly prone to pioneer colonization by dominant Gram-positive members of the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Streptococcus, indicating that the skin of crew members represents the primary source of early contamination. Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were also evident.


Impact of space flight on bacterial virulence and antibiotic susceptibility.

Taylor PW - Infect Drug Resist (2015)

Internal complexity of the ISS.Notes: (A) NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment at the Light Microscopy Module. (B) Expedition 22 flight engineer Tim Creamer works with flex hoses in the ISS’s US Destiny laboratory. (C) Using a vacuum cleaner. Courtesy of NASA.Abbreviation: ISS, International Space Station.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4524529&req=5

f1-idr-8-249: Internal complexity of the ISS.Notes: (A) NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment at the Light Microscopy Module. (B) Expedition 22 flight engineer Tim Creamer works with flex hoses in the ISS’s US Destiny laboratory. (C) Using a vacuum cleaner. Courtesy of NASA.Abbreviation: ISS, International Space Station.
Mentions: A greater microbial risk to crew wellbeing will come from their commensular flora, which will inevitably colonize the spacecraft, and from microbes originating from onboard supplies of air, food, and water. For example, it was reported that potable water generated by the fuel cells aboard Space Shuttle flights was commonly contaminated with very low levels of Burkholderia cepacia and other problematical bacteria.67 Similarly, potable water brought from ground sources and stored aboard Mir67 or the ISS68 tended to display higher bacterial counts than reclaimed humidity condensate. Future extended duration missions are expected to employ microorganisms for solid waste remediation and as a food source.67 On such missions, onboard cultivation of plants as food or as a component of bioregenerative life-support systems together with transportation of associated agricultural materials will further contribute to microbial complexity within such closed environments. The extent and complexity of microbial contamination will increase with time away. Although the potential health impact from the development of diverse microbial populations is unclear, these findings emphasize that microbial monitoring and vessel disinfection are significant factors to be taken into consideration in habitat design, engineering, and operation of all spacecraft. Threats may come not only from bacteria but also from fungi; dust in HEPA filters from the US laboratory aboard the ISS contained a wide range of potentially pathogenic molds such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger and moderate toxin producers such as Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium brevicompactum.69 Fifteen years of continuous human occupation of the ISS has made the station an excellent test bed for the prediction of microbiological problems that will be encountered during future deep space exploration missions. The approach to microbiological risk on the ISS is one of the prevention rather than reliance on in-flight solutions, and highly efficient air filtration systems, microbiological monitoring, and features to minimize the accumulation of moisture have been incorporated into its design.67 Nevertheless, the structural and electronic complexities of the various modules that comprise the ISS are so high that routine cleaning of surfaces represents a major “housekeeping” challenge (Figure 1). The initial colonization of surfaces on board the Russian segment of the ISS has recently been investigated:70 polymeric materials such as cable-labeling polyimide and the flame-resistant aramid Nomex® were particularly prone to pioneer colonization by dominant Gram-positive members of the genera Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Streptococcus, indicating that the skin of crew members represents the primary source of early contamination. Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were also evident.

Bottom Line: Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection.The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms.This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Universit y College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus