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Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets).

Holm NG, Oze C, Mousis O, Waite JH, Guilbert-Lepoutre A - Astrobiology (2015)

Bottom Line: The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds.The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe.Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University , Stockholm, Sweden .

ABSTRACT
Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Generic geochemical pathway of (A) olivine and pyroxene serpentinization to produce H2 and a variety of silicates, oxides, and Ni-Fe alloys and in (B) carbonate-oversaturated solutions. The font size reflects the concentration/abundance of minerals/gases/aqueous species involved in the reactions. (C) Images of serpentinization experiments from Jones et al. (2010) and the resulting solids and H2 production rates. The dark color in the carbonate undersaturated experiment is the result of abundant magnetite, whereas very little magnetite is present in the carbonate-oversaturated serpentinization experiment. (Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)
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f2: Generic geochemical pathway of (A) olivine and pyroxene serpentinization to produce H2 and a variety of silicates, oxides, and Ni-Fe alloys and in (B) carbonate-oversaturated solutions. The font size reflects the concentration/abundance of minerals/gases/aqueous species involved in the reactions. (C) Images of serpentinization experiments from Jones et al. (2010) and the resulting solids and H2 production rates. The dark color in the carbonate undersaturated experiment is the result of abundant magnetite, whereas very little magnetite is present in the carbonate-oversaturated serpentinization experiment. (Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)

Mentions: The term serpentinization generically describes the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3), which may produce serpentine group minerals ((Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) that include lizardite, chrysotile, and antigorite; magnetite (Fe3O4); Ni-Fe alloys; talc ((Mg,Fe)6(Si8O20)(OH)4); chlorite ((Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)6AlSi3O10(OH)8); tremolite/actinolite (Ca2(Mg,Fe)5(Si8O22)(OH)2); and brucite ((Mg,Fe)(OH)2), depending on P-T parameters. Oxidation of Fe(II) in olivine and pyroxenes leads to the reduction of water and the formation of molecular hydrogen (H2) as shown in Fig. 2.


Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets).

Holm NG, Oze C, Mousis O, Waite JH, Guilbert-Lepoutre A - Astrobiology (2015)

Generic geochemical pathway of (A) olivine and pyroxene serpentinization to produce H2 and a variety of silicates, oxides, and Ni-Fe alloys and in (B) carbonate-oversaturated solutions. The font size reflects the concentration/abundance of minerals/gases/aqueous species involved in the reactions. (C) Images of serpentinization experiments from Jones et al. (2010) and the resulting solids and H2 production rates. The dark color in the carbonate undersaturated experiment is the result of abundant magnetite, whereas very little magnetite is present in the carbonate-oversaturated serpentinization experiment. (Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4523005&req=5

f2: Generic geochemical pathway of (A) olivine and pyroxene serpentinization to produce H2 and a variety of silicates, oxides, and Ni-Fe alloys and in (B) carbonate-oversaturated solutions. The font size reflects the concentration/abundance of minerals/gases/aqueous species involved in the reactions. (C) Images of serpentinization experiments from Jones et al. (2010) and the resulting solids and H2 production rates. The dark color in the carbonate undersaturated experiment is the result of abundant magnetite, whereas very little magnetite is present in the carbonate-oversaturated serpentinization experiment. (Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)
Mentions: The term serpentinization generically describes the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3), which may produce serpentine group minerals ((Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) that include lizardite, chrysotile, and antigorite; magnetite (Fe3O4); Ni-Fe alloys; talc ((Mg,Fe)6(Si8O20)(OH)4); chlorite ((Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)6AlSi3O10(OH)8); tremolite/actinolite (Ca2(Mg,Fe)5(Si8O22)(OH)2); and brucite ((Mg,Fe)(OH)2), depending on P-T parameters. Oxidation of Fe(II) in olivine and pyroxenes leads to the reduction of water and the formation of molecular hydrogen (H2) as shown in Fig. 2.

Bottom Line: The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds.The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe.Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University , Stockholm, Sweden .

ABSTRACT
Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus