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Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets).

Holm NG, Oze C, Mousis O, Waite JH, Guilbert-Lepoutre A - Astrobiology (2015)

Bottom Line: The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds.The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe.Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University , Stockholm, Sweden .

ABSTRACT
Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Classification of ultramafic rocks based on Le Maitre (2002).(Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)
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f1: Classification of ultramafic rocks based on Le Maitre (2002).(Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)

Mentions: Serpentinization is primarily associated with ultramafic rocks. An ultramafic rock is defined as a rock containing in total less than about 45 wt % SiO2 with elevated Mg and Fe. On Earth, the petrogenesis of ultramafic rocks is related to magmatic and mantle processes. On other celestial bodies, the formation of ultramafic rocks may vary; however, the classification and nature of ultramafic rocks will be the same, as it is based on the rock's chemistry and mineralogy. Additionally, these rocks may be categorized based on their abundance and/or normalized proportions of olivine and pyroxene group minerals (>90% mafic minerals). Ultramafic rocks that contain greater than 40% olivine are referred to as peridotites, whereas rocks with less than 40% olivines are pyroxenites, with further rock subdivisions for each as shown in Fig. 1. Serpentinite is a catch-all term for ultramafic rocks that undergo serpentinization, where the extent of serpentinization and/or the abundance of the remaining primary minerals are not directly defined.


Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets).

Holm NG, Oze C, Mousis O, Waite JH, Guilbert-Lepoutre A - Astrobiology (2015)

Classification of ultramafic rocks based on Le Maitre (2002).(Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4523005&req=5

f1: Classification of ultramafic rocks based on Le Maitre (2002).(Color graphics available at www.liebertonline.com/ast)
Mentions: Serpentinization is primarily associated with ultramafic rocks. An ultramafic rock is defined as a rock containing in total less than about 45 wt % SiO2 with elevated Mg and Fe. On Earth, the petrogenesis of ultramafic rocks is related to magmatic and mantle processes. On other celestial bodies, the formation of ultramafic rocks may vary; however, the classification and nature of ultramafic rocks will be the same, as it is based on the rock's chemistry and mineralogy. Additionally, these rocks may be categorized based on their abundance and/or normalized proportions of olivine and pyroxene group minerals (>90% mafic minerals). Ultramafic rocks that contain greater than 40% olivine are referred to as peridotites, whereas rocks with less than 40% olivines are pyroxenites, with further rock subdivisions for each as shown in Fig. 1. Serpentinite is a catch-all term for ultramafic rocks that undergo serpentinization, where the extent of serpentinization and/or the abundance of the remaining primary minerals are not directly defined.

Bottom Line: The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds.The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe.Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University , Stockholm, Sweden .

ABSTRACT
Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus