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The simulated early learning of cervical spine manipulation technique utilising mannequins.

Chapman PD, Stomski NJ, Losco B, Walker BF - Chiropr Man Therap (2015)

Bottom Line: All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks.A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks.There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 6 Claredon Court, Alexander Heights, 6064 WA Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Trivial pain or minor soreness commonly follows neck manipulation and has been estimated at one in three treatments. In addition, rare catastrophic events can occur. Some of these incidents have been ascribed to poor technique where the neck is rotated too far. The aims of this study were to design an instrument to measure competency of neck manipulation in beginning students when using a simulation mannequin, and then examine the suitability of using a simulation mannequin to teach the early psychomotor skills for neck chiropractic manipulative therapy.

Methods: We developed an initial set of questionnaire items and then used an expert panel to assess an instrument for neck manipulation competency among chiropractic students. The study sample comprised all 41 fourth year 2014 chiropractic students at Murdoch University. Students were randomly allocated into either a usual learning or mannequin group. All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks. A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks.

Results: This study was conducted between January and March 2014. We successfully developed an instrument of measurement to assess neck manipulation competency in chiropractic students. We then randomised 41 participants to first undertake either "usual learning" (n = 19) or "mannequin learning" (n = 22) for early neck manipulation training. There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the use of a mannequin does not affect the manipulation competency grades of early learning students at short term follow up. Our findings have potentially important safety implications as the results indicate that students could initially gain competence in neck manipulation by using mannequins before proceeding to perform neck manipulation on each other.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The mannequin
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Fig1: The mannequin

Mentions: The cervical mannequin is known as “Flexi-man” and is shown in Figs. 1 & 2. Fleximan has been developed and manufactured by Dr. Timothy Young, Chiropractor [19]. The mannequin consists of a flexible imitation of shoulders, neck and head made of a pliant “rubberised” material. The weight of the mannequin is 4.8 kgs with the specific head weight unknown, however a proxy head weight was 3.2 kgs. This proxy weight was established by laying the mannequin prone with the head recumbent on weight scales. The mannequin was designed to allow students to set up, place contacts and deliver a thrust in a line of drive of their choosing. It does not however allow for pre-manipulative tension. The mannequin is a stylised human facsimile and is not designed to mimic a human specimen. It does not have the variability of human subjects receiving manipulation, for example height, weight, and tissue compliance. The makers state that the mannequin is best used in the introductory phases of training [20].Fig. 1


The simulated early learning of cervical spine manipulation technique utilising mannequins.

Chapman PD, Stomski NJ, Losco B, Walker BF - Chiropr Man Therap (2015)

The mannequin
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4522963&req=5

Fig1: The mannequin
Mentions: The cervical mannequin is known as “Flexi-man” and is shown in Figs. 1 & 2. Fleximan has been developed and manufactured by Dr. Timothy Young, Chiropractor [19]. The mannequin consists of a flexible imitation of shoulders, neck and head made of a pliant “rubberised” material. The weight of the mannequin is 4.8 kgs with the specific head weight unknown, however a proxy head weight was 3.2 kgs. This proxy weight was established by laying the mannequin prone with the head recumbent on weight scales. The mannequin was designed to allow students to set up, place contacts and deliver a thrust in a line of drive of their choosing. It does not however allow for pre-manipulative tension. The mannequin is a stylised human facsimile and is not designed to mimic a human specimen. It does not have the variability of human subjects receiving manipulation, for example height, weight, and tissue compliance. The makers state that the mannequin is best used in the introductory phases of training [20].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks.A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks.There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 6 Claredon Court, Alexander Heights, 6064 WA Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Trivial pain or minor soreness commonly follows neck manipulation and has been estimated at one in three treatments. In addition, rare catastrophic events can occur. Some of these incidents have been ascribed to poor technique where the neck is rotated too far. The aims of this study were to design an instrument to measure competency of neck manipulation in beginning students when using a simulation mannequin, and then examine the suitability of using a simulation mannequin to teach the early psychomotor skills for neck chiropractic manipulative therapy.

Methods: We developed an initial set of questionnaire items and then used an expert panel to assess an instrument for neck manipulation competency among chiropractic students. The study sample comprised all 41 fourth year 2014 chiropractic students at Murdoch University. Students were randomly allocated into either a usual learning or mannequin group. All participants crossed over to undertake the alternative learning method after four weeks. A chi-square test was used to examine differences between groups in the proportion of students achieving an overall pass mark at baseline, four weeks, and eight weeks.

Results: This study was conducted between January and March 2014. We successfully developed an instrument of measurement to assess neck manipulation competency in chiropractic students. We then randomised 41 participants to first undertake either "usual learning" (n = 19) or "mannequin learning" (n = 22) for early neck manipulation training. There were no significant differences between groups in the overall pass rate at baseline (χ(2) = 0.10, p = 0.75), four weeks (χ(2) = 0.40, p = 0.53), and eight weeks (χ(2) = 0.07, p = 0.79).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the use of a mannequin does not affect the manipulation competency grades of early learning students at short term follow up. Our findings have potentially important safety implications as the results indicate that students could initially gain competence in neck manipulation by using mannequins before proceeding to perform neck manipulation on each other.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus