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Maternal exercise before and during pregnancy does not impact offspring exercise or body composition in mice.

Kelly SA, Hua K, Wallace JN, Wells SE, Nehrenberg DL, Pomp D - J Negat Results Biomed (2015)

Bottom Line: One such environmental influence is the maternal milieu (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care).Variability in the maternal environment may directly impact the mother, and simultaneously has the potential to influence the physiology and/or behavior of offspring in utero, post birth, and into adulthood.The current results conflict with previous findings in human and mouse models demonstrating that maternal exercise has the potential to alter offspring phenotypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Schimmel/Conrades Science Center #346, 61 S. Sandusky St, Delaware, OH, 43015, USA. sakelly@owu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genome, the environment, and their interactions simultaneously regulate complex traits such as body composition and voluntary exercise levels. One such environmental influence is the maternal milieu (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care). Variability in the maternal environment may directly impact the mother, and simultaneously has the potential to influence the physiology and/or behavior of offspring in utero, post birth, and into adulthood. Here, we utilized a murine model to examine the effects of the maternal environment in regard to voluntary exercise (absence of wheel running, wheel running prior to gestation, and wheel running prior to and throughout gestation) on offspring weight and body composition (% fat tissue and % lean tissue) throughout development (~3 to ~9 weeks of age). Additionally, we examined the effects of ~6 weeks of maternal exercise (prior to and during gestation) on offspring exercise levels at ~9 weeks of age.

Results: We observed no substantial effects of maternal exercise on subsequent male or female offspring body composition throughout development, or on the propensity of offspring to engage in voluntary wheel running. At the level of the individual, correlational analyses revealed some statistically significant relationships between maternal and offspring exercise levels, likely reflecting previously known heritability estimates for such traits.

Conclusions: The current results conflict with previous findings in human and mouse models demonstrating that maternal exercise has the potential to alter offspring phenotypes. We discuss our negative findings in the context of the timing of the maternal exercise and the level of biological organization of the examined phenotypes within the offspring.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationship between mean offspring (G2) running distance (revolutions/day) and mean gestational (G1) running distance. G2 values represent the means of days 5 and 6 of a 6-day wheel exposure at ~9 weeks of age. G1 running trait values are the means of days 48–54 of wheel access. Days 48–54 occurred after a confirmed pregnancy (presence of vaginal plugs) and removal of the male, but prior to giving birth. Pearson partial correlations (r; controlling for sex) revealed a statically significant relationship between the two running variables (p = 0.001, r = 0.600)
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Fig2: Relationship between mean offspring (G2) running distance (revolutions/day) and mean gestational (G1) running distance. G2 values represent the means of days 5 and 6 of a 6-day wheel exposure at ~9 weeks of age. G1 running trait values are the means of days 48–54 of wheel access. Days 48–54 occurred after a confirmed pregnancy (presence of vaginal plugs) and removal of the male, but prior to giving birth. Pearson partial correlations (r; controlling for sex) revealed a statically significant relationship between the two running variables (p = 0.001, r = 0.600)

Mentions: At the level of the individual, Pearson partial correlations (r, controlling for sex) revealed that mean offspring-running distance was statistically significantly correlated with maternal mean running distance (p = 0.031, r = 0.282, Fig. 1) and running time (p = 0.039, r = 0.269) prior to gestation (Additional file 1: Table S2). Additionally, offspring (G2) running time was statistically significant correlated to maternal (G1) running time prior to gestation (p = 0.004, r = 0.371) (Additional file 1: Table S2). Maternal values utilized for correlations represented the averages of days 33 and 34 of wheel access, so as to be approximately age matched with values of the offspring. Pearson partial correlations (controlling for sex) were also performed for maternal-gestational (G1) and offspring (G2) mean voluntary running traits (Additional file 1: Table S3). G1 running trait values are the means of days 48–54 of wheel access. Days 48–54 occurred after a confirmed pregnancy (presence of vaginal plugs) and removal of the male, but prior to giving birth. Correlations revealed a statistically significant relationship between mean offspring running distance and maternal-gestational running distance (p = 0.001, r = 0.600; Fig. 2) and maximum running speed (p = 0.046, r = 0.395). Additionally, average and maximum running speeds of offspring were statistically significantly correlated with maternal maximum running speeds during gestation (p = 0.009, r = 0.501; p = 0.013, r = 0.482; respectively). These mother-offspring correlations likely represent rough estimates of heritability, and are similar to what have been previously reported in mice of similar genetic background (see Ref. [35]). For additional information on the genetic architecture underlying voluntary exercise behavior see [21] and references therein.Fig. 1


Maternal exercise before and during pregnancy does not impact offspring exercise or body composition in mice.

Kelly SA, Hua K, Wallace JN, Wells SE, Nehrenberg DL, Pomp D - J Negat Results Biomed (2015)

Relationship between mean offspring (G2) running distance (revolutions/day) and mean gestational (G1) running distance. G2 values represent the means of days 5 and 6 of a 6-day wheel exposure at ~9 weeks of age. G1 running trait values are the means of days 48–54 of wheel access. Days 48–54 occurred after a confirmed pregnancy (presence of vaginal plugs) and removal of the male, but prior to giving birth. Pearson partial correlations (r; controlling for sex) revealed a statically significant relationship between the two running variables (p = 0.001, r = 0.600)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4522962&req=5

Fig2: Relationship between mean offspring (G2) running distance (revolutions/day) and mean gestational (G1) running distance. G2 values represent the means of days 5 and 6 of a 6-day wheel exposure at ~9 weeks of age. G1 running trait values are the means of days 48–54 of wheel access. Days 48–54 occurred after a confirmed pregnancy (presence of vaginal plugs) and removal of the male, but prior to giving birth. Pearson partial correlations (r; controlling for sex) revealed a statically significant relationship between the two running variables (p = 0.001, r = 0.600)
Mentions: At the level of the individual, Pearson partial correlations (r, controlling for sex) revealed that mean offspring-running distance was statistically significantly correlated with maternal mean running distance (p = 0.031, r = 0.282, Fig. 1) and running time (p = 0.039, r = 0.269) prior to gestation (Additional file 1: Table S2). Additionally, offspring (G2) running time was statistically significant correlated to maternal (G1) running time prior to gestation (p = 0.004, r = 0.371) (Additional file 1: Table S2). Maternal values utilized for correlations represented the averages of days 33 and 34 of wheel access, so as to be approximately age matched with values of the offspring. Pearson partial correlations (controlling for sex) were also performed for maternal-gestational (G1) and offspring (G2) mean voluntary running traits (Additional file 1: Table S3). G1 running trait values are the means of days 48–54 of wheel access. Days 48–54 occurred after a confirmed pregnancy (presence of vaginal plugs) and removal of the male, but prior to giving birth. Correlations revealed a statistically significant relationship between mean offspring running distance and maternal-gestational running distance (p = 0.001, r = 0.600; Fig. 2) and maximum running speed (p = 0.046, r = 0.395). Additionally, average and maximum running speeds of offspring were statistically significantly correlated with maternal maximum running speeds during gestation (p = 0.009, r = 0.501; p = 0.013, r = 0.482; respectively). These mother-offspring correlations likely represent rough estimates of heritability, and are similar to what have been previously reported in mice of similar genetic background (see Ref. [35]). For additional information on the genetic architecture underlying voluntary exercise behavior see [21] and references therein.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: One such environmental influence is the maternal milieu (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care).Variability in the maternal environment may directly impact the mother, and simultaneously has the potential to influence the physiology and/or behavior of offspring in utero, post birth, and into adulthood.The current results conflict with previous findings in human and mouse models demonstrating that maternal exercise has the potential to alter offspring phenotypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Schimmel/Conrades Science Center #346, 61 S. Sandusky St, Delaware, OH, 43015, USA. sakelly@owu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genome, the environment, and their interactions simultaneously regulate complex traits such as body composition and voluntary exercise levels. One such environmental influence is the maternal milieu (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care). Variability in the maternal environment may directly impact the mother, and simultaneously has the potential to influence the physiology and/or behavior of offspring in utero, post birth, and into adulthood. Here, we utilized a murine model to examine the effects of the maternal environment in regard to voluntary exercise (absence of wheel running, wheel running prior to gestation, and wheel running prior to and throughout gestation) on offspring weight and body composition (% fat tissue and % lean tissue) throughout development (~3 to ~9 weeks of age). Additionally, we examined the effects of ~6 weeks of maternal exercise (prior to and during gestation) on offspring exercise levels at ~9 weeks of age.

Results: We observed no substantial effects of maternal exercise on subsequent male or female offspring body composition throughout development, or on the propensity of offspring to engage in voluntary wheel running. At the level of the individual, correlational analyses revealed some statistically significant relationships between maternal and offspring exercise levels, likely reflecting previously known heritability estimates for such traits.

Conclusions: The current results conflict with previous findings in human and mouse models demonstrating that maternal exercise has the potential to alter offspring phenotypes. We discuss our negative findings in the context of the timing of the maternal exercise and the level of biological organization of the examined phenotypes within the offspring.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus