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A systematic review of Rift Valley Fever epidemiology 1931-2014.

Nanyingi MO, Munyua P, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Bitek AO, Bett B, Muriithi RM, Njenga MK - Infect Ecol Epidemiol (2015)

Bottom Line: RVF outbreaks have resulted in significant losses through human illness and deaths, high livestock abortions and deaths.A total of 84 studies were included in this review; majority (50%) reported on common human and animal risk factors that included consumption of animal products, contact with infected animals and residing in low altitude areas associated with favorable climatic and ecological conditions for vector emergence.It, therefore, explains RVF epidemiological status that may be used for design of targeted surveillance and control programs in endemic countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that was first isolated and characterized in 1931 in Kenya. RVF outbreaks have resulted in significant losses through human illness and deaths, high livestock abortions and deaths. This report provides an overview on epidemiology of RVF including ecology, molecular diversity spatiotemporal analysis, and predictive risk modeling.

Methodology: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically searched for relevant RVF publications in repositories of the World Health Organization Library and Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS), U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Detailed searches were performed in Google Scholar, SpringerLink, and PubMed databases and included conference proceedings and books published from 1931 up to 31st January 2015.

Results and discussion: A total of 84 studies were included in this review; majority (50%) reported on common human and animal risk factors that included consumption of animal products, contact with infected animals and residing in low altitude areas associated with favorable climatic and ecological conditions for vector emergence. A total of 14 (16%) of the publications described RVF progressive spatial and temporal distribution and the use of risk modeling for timely prediction of imminent outbreaks. Using distribution maps, we illustrated the gradual spread and geographical extent of disease; we also estimated the disease burden using aggregate human mortalities and cumulative outbreak periods for endemic regions.

Conclusion: This review outlines common risk factors for RVF infections over wider geographical areas; it also emphasizes the role of spatial models in predicting RVF enzootics. It, therefore, explains RVF epidemiological status that may be used for design of targeted surveillance and control programs in endemic countries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of Africa and Arabian Peninsula illustrating the spatial and temporal distribution of Rift Valley status from the first suspected case in 1912. Total number of human deaths (HD) is indicated for selected countries for all outbreak periods. Based on (2, 5–7, 10–12, 14, 16, 22, 23, 25, 40, 46, 54, 75, 80).
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Figure 0002: Map of Africa and Arabian Peninsula illustrating the spatial and temporal distribution of Rift Valley status from the first suspected case in 1912. Total number of human deaths (HD) is indicated for selected countries for all outbreak periods. Based on (2, 5–7, 10–12, 14, 16, 22, 23, 25, 40, 46, 54, 75, 80).

Mentions: The descriptive geography of the epizootic or endemic status of RVFV was illustrated using GIS software (ArcView® 10.2.2) to produce distribution maps (Figs. 2 and 3). The input data were extracted from the relevant cited publications. The aggregate number of outbreaks in months as reported at country level was confirmed by clinical diagnosis or serological evidence in livestock and humans. From available records, we calculated the cumulative human case fatalities in 13 African and two Arabian countries from 1977 to 2012. More details are available in Fig. 2.


A systematic review of Rift Valley Fever epidemiology 1931-2014.

Nanyingi MO, Munyua P, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Bitek AO, Bett B, Muriithi RM, Njenga MK - Infect Ecol Epidemiol (2015)

Map of Africa and Arabian Peninsula illustrating the spatial and temporal distribution of Rift Valley status from the first suspected case in 1912. Total number of human deaths (HD) is indicated for selected countries for all outbreak periods. Based on (2, 5–7, 10–12, 14, 16, 22, 23, 25, 40, 46, 54, 75, 80).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4522434&req=5

Figure 0002: Map of Africa and Arabian Peninsula illustrating the spatial and temporal distribution of Rift Valley status from the first suspected case in 1912. Total number of human deaths (HD) is indicated for selected countries for all outbreak periods. Based on (2, 5–7, 10–12, 14, 16, 22, 23, 25, 40, 46, 54, 75, 80).
Mentions: The descriptive geography of the epizootic or endemic status of RVFV was illustrated using GIS software (ArcView® 10.2.2) to produce distribution maps (Figs. 2 and 3). The input data were extracted from the relevant cited publications. The aggregate number of outbreaks in months as reported at country level was confirmed by clinical diagnosis or serological evidence in livestock and humans. From available records, we calculated the cumulative human case fatalities in 13 African and two Arabian countries from 1977 to 2012. More details are available in Fig. 2.

Bottom Line: RVF outbreaks have resulted in significant losses through human illness and deaths, high livestock abortions and deaths.A total of 84 studies were included in this review; majority (50%) reported on common human and animal risk factors that included consumption of animal products, contact with infected animals and residing in low altitude areas associated with favorable climatic and ecological conditions for vector emergence.It, therefore, explains RVF epidemiological status that may be used for design of targeted surveillance and control programs in endemic countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that was first isolated and characterized in 1931 in Kenya. RVF outbreaks have resulted in significant losses through human illness and deaths, high livestock abortions and deaths. This report provides an overview on epidemiology of RVF including ecology, molecular diversity spatiotemporal analysis, and predictive risk modeling.

Methodology: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically searched for relevant RVF publications in repositories of the World Health Organization Library and Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS), U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Detailed searches were performed in Google Scholar, SpringerLink, and PubMed databases and included conference proceedings and books published from 1931 up to 31st January 2015.

Results and discussion: A total of 84 studies were included in this review; majority (50%) reported on common human and animal risk factors that included consumption of animal products, contact with infected animals and residing in low altitude areas associated with favorable climatic and ecological conditions for vector emergence. A total of 14 (16%) of the publications described RVF progressive spatial and temporal distribution and the use of risk modeling for timely prediction of imminent outbreaks. Using distribution maps, we illustrated the gradual spread and geographical extent of disease; we also estimated the disease burden using aggregate human mortalities and cumulative outbreak periods for endemic regions.

Conclusion: This review outlines common risk factors for RVF infections over wider geographical areas; it also emphasizes the role of spatial models in predicting RVF enzootics. It, therefore, explains RVF epidemiological status that may be used for design of targeted surveillance and control programs in endemic countries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus