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A review of 3D first-pass, whole-heart, myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Fair MJ, Gatehouse PD, DiBella EV, Firmin DN - J Cardiovasc Magn Reson (2015)

Bottom Line: The mechanisms include rapid sequences, non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, reduced k-space acquisitions, parallel imaging reconstructions and compressed sensing.An attempt is made to explain, rather than simply state, the varying methods with the hope that it will give an appreciation of the different components making up a 3D FPP protocol.Basic estimates demonstrating the required total acceleration factors in typical 3D FPP cases are included, providing context for the extent that each acceleration method can contribute to the required imaging speed, as well as potential limitations in present 3D FPP literature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. M.Fair@rbht.nhs.uk.

ABSTRACT
A comprehensive review is undertaken of the methods available for 3D whole-heart first-pass perfusion (FPP) and their application to date, with particular focus on possible acceleration techniques. Following a summary of the parameters typically desired of 3D FPP methods, the review explains the mechanisms of key acceleration techniques and their potential use in FPP for attaining 3D acquisitions. The mechanisms include rapid sequences, non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, reduced k-space acquisitions, parallel imaging reconstructions and compressed sensing. An attempt is made to explain, rather than simply state, the varying methods with the hope that it will give an appreciation of the different components making up a 3D FPP protocol. Basic estimates demonstrating the required total acceleration factors in typical 3D FPP cases are included, providing context for the extent that each acceleration method can contribute to the required imaging speed, as well as potential limitations in present 3D FPP literature. Although many 3D FPP methods are too early in development for the type of clinical trials required to show any clear benefit over current 2D FPP methods, the review includes the small but growing quantity of clinical research work already using 3D FPP, alongside the more technical work. Broader challenges concerning FPP such as quantitative analysis are not covered, but challenges with particular impact on 3D FPP methods, particularly with regards to motion effects, are discussed along with anticipated future work in the field.

No MeSH data available.


Stack-of-spirals 3D FPP dataset. Illustrative images acquired through stack-of-spirals during right ventricle blood-pool (top), LV blood-pool (middle) and LV myocardial (bottom) enhancement. Dotted lines indicate the middle slice which was used for comparison with the corresponding single-slice 2D Cartesian acquisition. The corresponding myocardial signal-time curves for this and its corresponding 2D slice are shown below, demonstrating good agreement, except for k-t parallel imaging artefacts in the early and late frames. Reproduced from [39]
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Fig10: Stack-of-spirals 3D FPP dataset. Illustrative images acquired through stack-of-spirals during right ventricle blood-pool (top), LV blood-pool (middle) and LV myocardial (bottom) enhancement. Dotted lines indicate the middle slice which was used for comparison with the corresponding single-slice 2D Cartesian acquisition. The corresponding myocardial signal-time curves for this and its corresponding 2D slice are shown below, demonstrating good agreement, except for k-t parallel imaging artefacts in the early and late frames. Reproduced from [39]

Mentions: In work examining the optimisation of the first spiral 3D FPP sequence [39] (see Fig. 10), the higher efficiency of this k-space traversal permitted acquisition windows closer to those applied in the k-t clinical studies, at the smallest undersampling factor applied with a CS/k-t PI technique. With the stack-of-spiral acquisition placed during mid-diastole, a 2D single-slice Cartesian acquisition was also acquired each cardiac cycle allowing comparison of this 2D and 3D approach through analysis of the myocardial signal-time curves (Fig. 10). Finally, alongside the ungated radial approach just mentioned, one of the more novel attempts was continuous acquisition SSFPP [24]. With much of the paper focussing on the SFPP technique in 2D, the 3D initial experience only used a small amount of undersampling and other acceleration techniques, which explains the long acquisition window, nevertheless providing proof of concept.Fig. 10


A review of 3D first-pass, whole-heart, myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Fair MJ, Gatehouse PD, DiBella EV, Firmin DN - J Cardiovasc Magn Reson (2015)

Stack-of-spirals 3D FPP dataset. Illustrative images acquired through stack-of-spirals during right ventricle blood-pool (top), LV blood-pool (middle) and LV myocardial (bottom) enhancement. Dotted lines indicate the middle slice which was used for comparison with the corresponding single-slice 2D Cartesian acquisition. The corresponding myocardial signal-time curves for this and its corresponding 2D slice are shown below, demonstrating good agreement, except for k-t parallel imaging artefacts in the early and late frames. Reproduced from [39]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4522116&req=5

Fig10: Stack-of-spirals 3D FPP dataset. Illustrative images acquired through stack-of-spirals during right ventricle blood-pool (top), LV blood-pool (middle) and LV myocardial (bottom) enhancement. Dotted lines indicate the middle slice which was used for comparison with the corresponding single-slice 2D Cartesian acquisition. The corresponding myocardial signal-time curves for this and its corresponding 2D slice are shown below, demonstrating good agreement, except for k-t parallel imaging artefacts in the early and late frames. Reproduced from [39]
Mentions: In work examining the optimisation of the first spiral 3D FPP sequence [39] (see Fig. 10), the higher efficiency of this k-space traversal permitted acquisition windows closer to those applied in the k-t clinical studies, at the smallest undersampling factor applied with a CS/k-t PI technique. With the stack-of-spiral acquisition placed during mid-diastole, a 2D single-slice Cartesian acquisition was also acquired each cardiac cycle allowing comparison of this 2D and 3D approach through analysis of the myocardial signal-time curves (Fig. 10). Finally, alongside the ungated radial approach just mentioned, one of the more novel attempts was continuous acquisition SSFPP [24]. With much of the paper focussing on the SFPP technique in 2D, the 3D initial experience only used a small amount of undersampling and other acceleration techniques, which explains the long acquisition window, nevertheless providing proof of concept.Fig. 10

Bottom Line: The mechanisms include rapid sequences, non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, reduced k-space acquisitions, parallel imaging reconstructions and compressed sensing.An attempt is made to explain, rather than simply state, the varying methods with the hope that it will give an appreciation of the different components making up a 3D FPP protocol.Basic estimates demonstrating the required total acceleration factors in typical 3D FPP cases are included, providing context for the extent that each acceleration method can contribute to the required imaging speed, as well as potential limitations in present 3D FPP literature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. M.Fair@rbht.nhs.uk.

ABSTRACT
A comprehensive review is undertaken of the methods available for 3D whole-heart first-pass perfusion (FPP) and their application to date, with particular focus on possible acceleration techniques. Following a summary of the parameters typically desired of 3D FPP methods, the review explains the mechanisms of key acceleration techniques and their potential use in FPP for attaining 3D acquisitions. The mechanisms include rapid sequences, non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, reduced k-space acquisitions, parallel imaging reconstructions and compressed sensing. An attempt is made to explain, rather than simply state, the varying methods with the hope that it will give an appreciation of the different components making up a 3D FPP protocol. Basic estimates demonstrating the required total acceleration factors in typical 3D FPP cases are included, providing context for the extent that each acceleration method can contribute to the required imaging speed, as well as potential limitations in present 3D FPP literature. Although many 3D FPP methods are too early in development for the type of clinical trials required to show any clear benefit over current 2D FPP methods, the review includes the small but growing quantity of clinical research work already using 3D FPP, alongside the more technical work. Broader challenges concerning FPP such as quantitative analysis are not covered, but challenges with particular impact on 3D FPP methods, particularly with regards to motion effects, are discussed along with anticipated future work in the field.

No MeSH data available.