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Osteopathology and selenium deficiency co-occurring in a population of endangered Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus).

Flueck WT - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Bottom Line: Most groups (>100) are not recovering, and prevalence of osteopathology in Argentina was at least 57%.The pathophysiognomy included extensive erosion; tooth loss; porosification; perforations of palate, maxillar and mandibular bone with frequent exposure of tooth roots; and fractured mandibula.Currently the most parsimonious explanation for frequent osteopathology and lack of numerical recovery are the combined effects of selenium and iodine deficiencies based on: osteopathology in a population of selenium deficient huemul; selenium deficient livestock, plants and soils; acidic soils; and regional primary iodine deficiency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina. werner.flueck@unibas.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: About 1,000 endangered Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) remain in Chile and 350-500 in Argentina. Most groups (>100) are not recovering, and prevalence of osteopathology in Argentina was at least 57%. Here I describe relevant cases of osteopathology from a Chilean population which, however, recently also provided data on trace mineral status, supporting the initial hypothesis that nutrition may be a primary etiologic factor. Additionally, recent data on bone chemical composition of Argentine cases and soil analyses are discussed.

Results: Fluoride levels in Argentine cases with osteopathology were low and fluorosis was discarded as an etiological factor. Selenium deficiency occurred in 73% of huemul from the Chilean population which exhibited several cases with osteopathology. The pathophysiognomy included extensive erosion; tooth loss; porosification; perforations of palate, maxillar and mandibular bone with frequent exposure of tooth roots; and fractured mandibula. Areas currently used by remaining huemul have mainly acidic volcanic soils, which reduces selenium bioavailability: mean soil selenium levels from areas typically used by extant huemul were very deficient (0.19 ppm), corroborating documented overt selenium deficiency in local livestock and plants. The area of extant huemul is known to result in primary iodine deficiency in livestock which is aggravated by selenium deficiency.

Conclusions: Currently the most parsimonious explanation for frequent osteopathology and lack of numerical recovery are the combined effects of selenium and iodine deficiencies based on: osteopathology in a population of selenium deficient huemul; selenium deficient livestock, plants and soils; acidic soils; and regional primary iodine deficiency. The nexus between mineral nutrition and population dynamics of huemul may be due to constraints on their movements to fertile lowlands, including the elimination of historic migratory traditions, and concomitant elimination of source populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Case 3, a female 5–7 years old. a Erosions of the palate along the molars and of alveolar pockets. b Erosions and perforations of the palate. c Severe erosion of the right maxilla exposing molar roots, and perforations exposing premolar roots, similar to the left buccal side (d). e Advanced erosion and perforations at the level of molars, and a reduced jaw height. f, g Eroded alveolar pockets, missing molars, and mandibular thickening. h Erosions and reduced of mandibular height.
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Fig4: Case 3, a female 5–7 years old. a Erosions of the palate along the molars and of alveolar pockets. b Erosions and perforations of the palate. c Severe erosion of the right maxilla exposing molar roots, and perforations exposing premolar roots, similar to the left buccal side (d). e Advanced erosion and perforations at the level of molars, and a reduced jaw height. f, g Eroded alveolar pockets, missing molars, and mandibular thickening. h Erosions and reduced of mandibular height.

Mentions: Case 3 is a skull from a female estimated at 5–7 years old based on tooth wear. The palatal side of the right maxilla shows erosion of alveolar pockets of P4 and erosion of the palate along the molars (Fig. 4a), whereas the left side has erosions and perforations of the palate (Fig. 4b). The right buccal side shows severe erosion of the maxilla exposing most of the roots of the molars, and with perforations exposing the roots of the premolars (Fig. 4c), similar to the left buccal side (Fig. 4d). The left buccal side of the mandible shows advanced erosion and perforations at the level of molars, and a reduced jaw height (Fig. 4e). The alveolar pockets at M3 are eroded while the jaw is thickened (Fig. 4f, g). The right buccal side of the mandible also exhibits erosion at M3 and a reduction of mandibular height (Fig. 4h).Fig. 4


Osteopathology and selenium deficiency co-occurring in a population of endangered Patagonian huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus).

Flueck WT - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Case 3, a female 5–7 years old. a Erosions of the palate along the molars and of alveolar pockets. b Erosions and perforations of the palate. c Severe erosion of the right maxilla exposing molar roots, and perforations exposing premolar roots, similar to the left buccal side (d). e Advanced erosion and perforations at the level of molars, and a reduced jaw height. f, g Eroded alveolar pockets, missing molars, and mandibular thickening. h Erosions and reduced of mandibular height.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4522092&req=5

Fig4: Case 3, a female 5–7 years old. a Erosions of the palate along the molars and of alveolar pockets. b Erosions and perforations of the palate. c Severe erosion of the right maxilla exposing molar roots, and perforations exposing premolar roots, similar to the left buccal side (d). e Advanced erosion and perforations at the level of molars, and a reduced jaw height. f, g Eroded alveolar pockets, missing molars, and mandibular thickening. h Erosions and reduced of mandibular height.
Mentions: Case 3 is a skull from a female estimated at 5–7 years old based on tooth wear. The palatal side of the right maxilla shows erosion of alveolar pockets of P4 and erosion of the palate along the molars (Fig. 4a), whereas the left side has erosions and perforations of the palate (Fig. 4b). The right buccal side shows severe erosion of the maxilla exposing most of the roots of the molars, and with perforations exposing the roots of the premolars (Fig. 4c), similar to the left buccal side (Fig. 4d). The left buccal side of the mandible shows advanced erosion and perforations at the level of molars, and a reduced jaw height (Fig. 4e). The alveolar pockets at M3 are eroded while the jaw is thickened (Fig. 4f, g). The right buccal side of the mandible also exhibits erosion at M3 and a reduction of mandibular height (Fig. 4h).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Most groups (>100) are not recovering, and prevalence of osteopathology in Argentina was at least 57%.The pathophysiognomy included extensive erosion; tooth loss; porosification; perforations of palate, maxillar and mandibular bone with frequent exposure of tooth roots; and fractured mandibula.Currently the most parsimonious explanation for frequent osteopathology and lack of numerical recovery are the combined effects of selenium and iodine deficiencies based on: osteopathology in a population of selenium deficient huemul; selenium deficient livestock, plants and soils; acidic soils; and regional primary iodine deficiency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina. werner.flueck@unibas.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: About 1,000 endangered Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) remain in Chile and 350-500 in Argentina. Most groups (>100) are not recovering, and prevalence of osteopathology in Argentina was at least 57%. Here I describe relevant cases of osteopathology from a Chilean population which, however, recently also provided data on trace mineral status, supporting the initial hypothesis that nutrition may be a primary etiologic factor. Additionally, recent data on bone chemical composition of Argentine cases and soil analyses are discussed.

Results: Fluoride levels in Argentine cases with osteopathology were low and fluorosis was discarded as an etiological factor. Selenium deficiency occurred in 73% of huemul from the Chilean population which exhibited several cases with osteopathology. The pathophysiognomy included extensive erosion; tooth loss; porosification; perforations of palate, maxillar and mandibular bone with frequent exposure of tooth roots; and fractured mandibula. Areas currently used by remaining huemul have mainly acidic volcanic soils, which reduces selenium bioavailability: mean soil selenium levels from areas typically used by extant huemul were very deficient (0.19 ppm), corroborating documented overt selenium deficiency in local livestock and plants. The area of extant huemul is known to result in primary iodine deficiency in livestock which is aggravated by selenium deficiency.

Conclusions: Currently the most parsimonious explanation for frequent osteopathology and lack of numerical recovery are the combined effects of selenium and iodine deficiencies based on: osteopathology in a population of selenium deficient huemul; selenium deficient livestock, plants and soils; acidic soils; and regional primary iodine deficiency. The nexus between mineral nutrition and population dynamics of huemul may be due to constraints on their movements to fertile lowlands, including the elimination of historic migratory traditions, and concomitant elimination of source populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus