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Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

Acar OA, van den Ende J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure.We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge.Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Management, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Technology and Operations Management, Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

No MeSH data available.


Bar chart illustrating proportion of fear of opportunism levels among male and female contest participants.Respondents in the low, moderate and high fear of opportunism groups consisted of participants that had an average rating within the ranges of “3 or less”, “from 3 to 5” and “5 or more” in the fear of opportunism scale, respectively.
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pone.0134898.g003: Bar chart illustrating proportion of fear of opportunism levels among male and female contest participants.Respondents in the low, moderate and high fear of opportunism groups consisted of participants that had an average rating within the ranges of “3 or less”, “from 3 to 5” and “5 or more” in the fear of opportunism scale, respectively.

Mentions: In all of the analyses, association between gender and fear of opportunism was positive and statistically significant (in Model 1 β = 0.09, p < 0.05; in Model 2 β = 0.09, p < 0.05; in Model 3 β = 0.09, p < 0.05) which suggested that men experienced more fear of opportunism than women in prize contests. To examine this gender difference further, we created a bar chart that displays how the proportion of respondents that experience low, moderate and high levels of fear of opportunism varies for the male and female samples (see Fig 3). The same procedure above was followed for defining low, moderate and high fear of opportunism groups. As shown in Fig 3, the proportion of participants that experience low fear of opportunism in the female sample is higher than the male sample (i.e., 60.71% of the female respondents versus 49.84% of the male respondents). On the contrary, relatively larger proportion of male participants experienced high fear of opportunism compared to women participants (i.e., 16.37% of the male respondents versus 8.93% of the female respondents).


Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

Acar OA, van den Ende J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bar chart illustrating proportion of fear of opportunism levels among male and female contest participants.Respondents in the low, moderate and high fear of opportunism groups consisted of participants that had an average rating within the ranges of “3 or less”, “from 3 to 5” and “5 or more” in the fear of opportunism scale, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4521938&req=5

pone.0134898.g003: Bar chart illustrating proportion of fear of opportunism levels among male and female contest participants.Respondents in the low, moderate and high fear of opportunism groups consisted of participants that had an average rating within the ranges of “3 or less”, “from 3 to 5” and “5 or more” in the fear of opportunism scale, respectively.
Mentions: In all of the analyses, association between gender and fear of opportunism was positive and statistically significant (in Model 1 β = 0.09, p < 0.05; in Model 2 β = 0.09, p < 0.05; in Model 3 β = 0.09, p < 0.05) which suggested that men experienced more fear of opportunism than women in prize contests. To examine this gender difference further, we created a bar chart that displays how the proportion of respondents that experience low, moderate and high levels of fear of opportunism varies for the male and female samples (see Fig 3). The same procedure above was followed for defining low, moderate and high fear of opportunism groups. As shown in Fig 3, the proportion of participants that experience low fear of opportunism in the female sample is higher than the male sample (i.e., 60.71% of the female respondents versus 49.84% of the male respondents). On the contrary, relatively larger proportion of male participants experienced high fear of opportunism compared to women participants (i.e., 16.37% of the male respondents versus 8.93% of the female respondents).

Bottom Line: This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure.We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge.Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Management, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Technology and Operations Management, Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

No MeSH data available.