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Phylogenetic Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes Circulating in Different Risk Groups of Panama, Evidence of the Introduction of Genotype A2 in the Country.

Martínez AA, Zaldívar Y, Arteaga G, de Castillo Z, Ortiz A, Mendoza Y, Castillero O, Castillo JA, Cristina J, Pascale JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) can cause acute or chronic infection it is also associated with the development of liver cancer, thousands of new infections occur on a yearly basis, and many of these cases are located in certain areas of the Caribbean and Latin America.Studies performed in Panama suggest a complex pattern in the distribution of HBV among the country's different risk groups.They also serve to encourage the implementation of vaccination programs in high-risk groups, in order to prevent an increase in the number of new HBV cases in Latin America and worldwide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genomics and Proteomics, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Panama, Panama; Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur City, Andhra Pradesh, India; INDICASAT-AIP, Clayton, City of Knowledge, Panama.

ABSTRACT
The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) can cause acute or chronic infection it is also associated with the development of liver cancer, thousands of new infections occur on a yearly basis, and many of these cases are located in certain areas of the Caribbean and Latin America. In these areas, the HBV prevalence is still high which makes this virus a serious public health concern to the entire region. Studies performed in Panama suggest a complex pattern in the distribution of HBV among the country's different risk groups. We use phylogenetic analysis in order to determine which HBV genotypes were circulating in these specific groups; for this we used a fragment of the PreS2/2 region of the HBV genome. Subsequently whole HBV genome sequences were used for Bayesian analysis of phylodynamics and phylogeography. Two main genotypes were found: genotype A (54.5%) and genotype F (45.5%). There was a difference in the distribution of genotypes according to risk groups: 72.9% of high risk groups were associated to genotype A, and 55.0% of samples of genotype F were associated to the low risk group (p<0.002). The Bayesian analysis of phylogeny-traits association revealed a statistically significant geographical association (p<0.0001) with both genotypes and different regions of the country. The Bayesian time of most recent common ancestor analysis (tMRCA) revealed a recent tMRCA for genotype A2 circulating in Panama (1997, 95% HPD: 1986-2005), when it is compared with Panamanian genotype F1c sequences (1930, 95% HPD: 1810 - 2005). These results suggest a possible change in the distribution of HBV genotypes in Panama and Latin America as a whole. They also serve to encourage the implementation of vaccination programs in high-risk groups, in order to prevent an increase in the number of new HBV cases in Latin America and worldwide.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum Likelihood tree of HBV Panamanian sequences.The tree is based on HBV partial PreS2-S region (~820pb), using reference sequences of each genotype (A-I) (n = 280) and sequences of Panamanian origin (n = 88) which are colored in blue. The place of sample collection is indicated in the taxa name, the symbols represent the behavioral risk groups to which the sample belongs: bold triangle: low risk, bold hexagon: high-risk group (bold circle). Clades in which there are not Panamanian samples are collapsed to simplify, node numbers correspond to αLTR values higher than 0.75.
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pone.0134850.g001: Maximum Likelihood tree of HBV Panamanian sequences.The tree is based on HBV partial PreS2-S region (~820pb), using reference sequences of each genotype (A-I) (n = 280) and sequences of Panamanian origin (n = 88) which are colored in blue. The place of sample collection is indicated in the taxa name, the symbols represent the behavioral risk groups to which the sample belongs: bold triangle: low risk, bold hexagon: high-risk group (bold circle). Clades in which there are not Panamanian samples are collapsed to simplify, node numbers correspond to αLTR values higher than 0.75.

Mentions: In this study we evaluated the HBV genotypes that are circulating in four different Panamanian populations of HBV positive subjects. We grouped these populations into two risk levels: low risk (blood donors) and high risk (CSW, MSM, HIV positive subjects). A total of 156 HBsAg positive subjects were included in the study and 88 partial PreS2-S sequences were obtained from them. Genotype A was the most prevalent and detected in 48 (54.5%) subjects, followed by genotype F in 40 (45.5%) participants (Fig 1). When we grouped the sequences according to the risk of acquiring the infection, we obtained the following results: the low risk group showed a significant association with genotype F (n = 22, 55%), however, high risk groups showed a significant association with genotype A (n = 35, 72.9%) (p<0.002) Table 1. When the samples were analyzed according to geographical location, associations were noted for the genotype F in Western provinces of Panama (n = 21, 81%), whereas genotype A was concentrated in the central areas of the country (n = 37, 75.5%). Table 1 (Fig 2).


Phylogenetic Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes Circulating in Different Risk Groups of Panama, Evidence of the Introduction of Genotype A2 in the Country.

Martínez AA, Zaldívar Y, Arteaga G, de Castillo Z, Ortiz A, Mendoza Y, Castillero O, Castillo JA, Cristina J, Pascale JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Maximum Likelihood tree of HBV Panamanian sequences.The tree is based on HBV partial PreS2-S region (~820pb), using reference sequences of each genotype (A-I) (n = 280) and sequences of Panamanian origin (n = 88) which are colored in blue. The place of sample collection is indicated in the taxa name, the symbols represent the behavioral risk groups to which the sample belongs: bold triangle: low risk, bold hexagon: high-risk group (bold circle). Clades in which there are not Panamanian samples are collapsed to simplify, node numbers correspond to αLTR values higher than 0.75.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4521924&req=5

pone.0134850.g001: Maximum Likelihood tree of HBV Panamanian sequences.The tree is based on HBV partial PreS2-S region (~820pb), using reference sequences of each genotype (A-I) (n = 280) and sequences of Panamanian origin (n = 88) which are colored in blue. The place of sample collection is indicated in the taxa name, the symbols represent the behavioral risk groups to which the sample belongs: bold triangle: low risk, bold hexagon: high-risk group (bold circle). Clades in which there are not Panamanian samples are collapsed to simplify, node numbers correspond to αLTR values higher than 0.75.
Mentions: In this study we evaluated the HBV genotypes that are circulating in four different Panamanian populations of HBV positive subjects. We grouped these populations into two risk levels: low risk (blood donors) and high risk (CSW, MSM, HIV positive subjects). A total of 156 HBsAg positive subjects were included in the study and 88 partial PreS2-S sequences were obtained from them. Genotype A was the most prevalent and detected in 48 (54.5%) subjects, followed by genotype F in 40 (45.5%) participants (Fig 1). When we grouped the sequences according to the risk of acquiring the infection, we obtained the following results: the low risk group showed a significant association with genotype F (n = 22, 55%), however, high risk groups showed a significant association with genotype A (n = 35, 72.9%) (p<0.002) Table 1. When the samples were analyzed according to geographical location, associations were noted for the genotype F in Western provinces of Panama (n = 21, 81%), whereas genotype A was concentrated in the central areas of the country (n = 37, 75.5%). Table 1 (Fig 2).

Bottom Line: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) can cause acute or chronic infection it is also associated with the development of liver cancer, thousands of new infections occur on a yearly basis, and many of these cases are located in certain areas of the Caribbean and Latin America.Studies performed in Panama suggest a complex pattern in the distribution of HBV among the country's different risk groups.They also serve to encourage the implementation of vaccination programs in high-risk groups, in order to prevent an increase in the number of new HBV cases in Latin America and worldwide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genomics and Proteomics, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Panama, Panama; Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur City, Andhra Pradesh, India; INDICASAT-AIP, Clayton, City of Knowledge, Panama.

ABSTRACT
The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) can cause acute or chronic infection it is also associated with the development of liver cancer, thousands of new infections occur on a yearly basis, and many of these cases are located in certain areas of the Caribbean and Latin America. In these areas, the HBV prevalence is still high which makes this virus a serious public health concern to the entire region. Studies performed in Panama suggest a complex pattern in the distribution of HBV among the country's different risk groups. We use phylogenetic analysis in order to determine which HBV genotypes were circulating in these specific groups; for this we used a fragment of the PreS2/2 region of the HBV genome. Subsequently whole HBV genome sequences were used for Bayesian analysis of phylodynamics and phylogeography. Two main genotypes were found: genotype A (54.5%) and genotype F (45.5%). There was a difference in the distribution of genotypes according to risk groups: 72.9% of high risk groups were associated to genotype A, and 55.0% of samples of genotype F were associated to the low risk group (p<0.002). The Bayesian analysis of phylogeny-traits association revealed a statistically significant geographical association (p<0.0001) with both genotypes and different regions of the country. The Bayesian time of most recent common ancestor analysis (tMRCA) revealed a recent tMRCA for genotype A2 circulating in Panama (1997, 95% HPD: 1986-2005), when it is compared with Panamanian genotype F1c sequences (1930, 95% HPD: 1810 - 2005). These results suggest a possible change in the distribution of HBV genotypes in Panama and Latin America as a whole. They also serve to encourage the implementation of vaccination programs in high-risk groups, in order to prevent an increase in the number of new HBV cases in Latin America and worldwide.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus