Limits...
Cellular Mechanisms of Drosophila Heart Morphogenesis.

Vogler G, Bodmer R - J Cardiovasc Dev Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: This has highlighted a number of candidate genes and gene networks that are potentially involved in CHD.The specific limitations of the various cardiac model systems currently employed (mammalian and fish models) provide a niche for the fly model, despite its evolutionary distance to vertebrates and humans.These underline how this model organism still is invaluable for a better understanding of CHD.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Development, Aging and Regeneration Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

ABSTRACT

Many of the major discoveries in the fields of genetics and developmental biology have been made using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. With regard to heart development, the conserved network of core cardiac transcription factors that underlies cardiogenesis has been studied in great detail in the fly, and the importance of several signaling pathways that regulate heart morphogenesis, such as Slit/Robo, was first shown in the fly model. Recent technological advances have led to a large increase in the genomic data available from patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This has highlighted a number of candidate genes and gene networks that are potentially involved in CHD. To validate genes and genetic interactions among candidate CHD-causing alleles and to better understand heart formation in general are major tasks. The specific limitations of the various cardiac model systems currently employed (mammalian and fish models) provide a niche for the fly model, despite its evolutionary distance to vertebrates and humans. Here, we review recent advances made using the Drosophila embryo that identify factors relevant for heart formation. These underline how this model organism still is invaluable for a better understanding of CHD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Overview of Drosophila heart morphogenesis. Cardioblasts (CBs, green circles) collectively migrate towards the dorsal midline of the embryo. These differentiate later into contractile cardiomyocytes (light green) and ostia cells (dark green). Actomyosin activity can be detected at the edge of the cells of the amnioserosa (AS), at the leading edge of the epidermis (LE) and at the apical side of CBs (red arrows indicate the axis of actomyosin bundles). CB migration is completed within 5 h. Epithelial closure precedes heart closure, and once the CBs make first contact at Stage 16, within 30 min, they actively enclose a central lumen. At that stage, several compartments within the CBs can be identified using several different markers. (b) Model showing genetic interactions between Cdc42, formins, actomyosin and the luminal proteins, Slit and Multiplexin. The upstream regulators of Cdc42 (both positive and negative) are yet to be identified.
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Figure 1: (a) Overview of Drosophila heart morphogenesis. Cardioblasts (CBs, green circles) collectively migrate towards the dorsal midline of the embryo. These differentiate later into contractile cardiomyocytes (light green) and ostia cells (dark green). Actomyosin activity can be detected at the edge of the cells of the amnioserosa (AS), at the leading edge of the epidermis (LE) and at the apical side of CBs (red arrows indicate the axis of actomyosin bundles). CB migration is completed within 5 h. Epithelial closure precedes heart closure, and once the CBs make first contact at Stage 16, within 30 min, they actively enclose a central lumen. At that stage, several compartments within the CBs can be identified using several different markers. (b) Model showing genetic interactions between Cdc42, formins, actomyosin and the luminal proteins, Slit and Multiplexin. The upstream regulators of Cdc42 (both positive and negative) are yet to be identified.

Mentions: Lumen formation in Drosophila occurs by enclosing of a central lumen, where the CBs actively bend around the luminal space (see Figure 1). Such changes in cell shape are achieved by the activity of the actomyosin network, which has not been studied in detail in the context of Drosophila heart formation. Throughout dorsal closure, actomyosin is active in epidermal cells (as “purse-string” actin-myosin cables that pull epidermal sheets towards the midline) and in the cells of the amnioserosa, an extra-embryonic layer that degenerates at late stages of development and, thereby, creates tension by reducing surface area.


Cellular Mechanisms of Drosophila Heart Morphogenesis.

Vogler G, Bodmer R - J Cardiovasc Dev Dis (2015)

(a) Overview of Drosophila heart morphogenesis. Cardioblasts (CBs, green circles) collectively migrate towards the dorsal midline of the embryo. These differentiate later into contractile cardiomyocytes (light green) and ostia cells (dark green). Actomyosin activity can be detected at the edge of the cells of the amnioserosa (AS), at the leading edge of the epidermis (LE) and at the apical side of CBs (red arrows indicate the axis of actomyosin bundles). CB migration is completed within 5 h. Epithelial closure precedes heart closure, and once the CBs make first contact at Stage 16, within 30 min, they actively enclose a central lumen. At that stage, several compartments within the CBs can be identified using several different markers. (b) Model showing genetic interactions between Cdc42, formins, actomyosin and the luminal proteins, Slit and Multiplexin. The upstream regulators of Cdc42 (both positive and negative) are yet to be identified.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520698&req=5

Figure 1: (a) Overview of Drosophila heart morphogenesis. Cardioblasts (CBs, green circles) collectively migrate towards the dorsal midline of the embryo. These differentiate later into contractile cardiomyocytes (light green) and ostia cells (dark green). Actomyosin activity can be detected at the edge of the cells of the amnioserosa (AS), at the leading edge of the epidermis (LE) and at the apical side of CBs (red arrows indicate the axis of actomyosin bundles). CB migration is completed within 5 h. Epithelial closure precedes heart closure, and once the CBs make first contact at Stage 16, within 30 min, they actively enclose a central lumen. At that stage, several compartments within the CBs can be identified using several different markers. (b) Model showing genetic interactions between Cdc42, formins, actomyosin and the luminal proteins, Slit and Multiplexin. The upstream regulators of Cdc42 (both positive and negative) are yet to be identified.
Mentions: Lumen formation in Drosophila occurs by enclosing of a central lumen, where the CBs actively bend around the luminal space (see Figure 1). Such changes in cell shape are achieved by the activity of the actomyosin network, which has not been studied in detail in the context of Drosophila heart formation. Throughout dorsal closure, actomyosin is active in epidermal cells (as “purse-string” actin-myosin cables that pull epidermal sheets towards the midline) and in the cells of the amnioserosa, an extra-embryonic layer that degenerates at late stages of development and, thereby, creates tension by reducing surface area.

Bottom Line: This has highlighted a number of candidate genes and gene networks that are potentially involved in CHD.The specific limitations of the various cardiac model systems currently employed (mammalian and fish models) provide a niche for the fly model, despite its evolutionary distance to vertebrates and humans.These underline how this model organism still is invaluable for a better understanding of CHD.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Development, Aging and Regeneration Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

ABSTRACT

Many of the major discoveries in the fields of genetics and developmental biology have been made using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. With regard to heart development, the conserved network of core cardiac transcription factors that underlies cardiogenesis has been studied in great detail in the fly, and the importance of several signaling pathways that regulate heart morphogenesis, such as Slit/Robo, was first shown in the fly model. Recent technological advances have led to a large increase in the genomic data available from patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This has highlighted a number of candidate genes and gene networks that are potentially involved in CHD. To validate genes and genetic interactions among candidate CHD-causing alleles and to better understand heart formation in general are major tasks. The specific limitations of the various cardiac model systems currently employed (mammalian and fish models) provide a niche for the fly model, despite its evolutionary distance to vertebrates and humans. Here, we review recent advances made using the Drosophila embryo that identify factors relevant for heart formation. These underline how this model organism still is invaluable for a better understanding of CHD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus