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Characterizing the Impact of Commercial Pollen Substitute Diets on the Level of Nosema spp. in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

Fleming JC, Schmehl DR, Ellis JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However Nosema spp., a microsporidian parasite of the honey bee, is thought to be associated closely with a colony's nutritional intake, thus possibly negating any benefit the bees otherwise would have received from a nutritional supplement.The overall volume of diet consumed by the bees did not correlate with the level of Nosema in their midguts.Our study illustrates how providing nutritional supplements to adult honey bees can impact the intensity of Nosema in their midguts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Entomology and Nematology Department, 970 Natural Area Drive, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations face declines commonly attributed to pesticide, pathogen, and parasite stress. One way beekeepers combat these stressors is by providing supplemental protein diets to honey bee colonies to ensure adequate colony nutrition. However Nosema spp., a microsporidian parasite of the honey bee, is thought to be associated closely with a colony's nutritional intake, thus possibly negating any benefit the bees otherwise would have received from a nutritional supplement. Through three objectives, we examined how adult bees' consumption of wildflower pollen or commercial pollen substitute diets affected Nosema levels in the bees' midguts. For our first objective, we investigated how method of inoculation with Nosema affects infection levels in inoculated bees. Bees were infected with spores of Nosema four days after emergence. On day 15, bees were collected from the cages and Nosema spores were quantified. We found that inoculation through the pollen diet resulted in the highest Nosema levels in inoculated bees. In our second and third objectives, we provided the test diets to caged, newly emerged bees for a period of 15 days. Bees consuming pollen and a sucrose solution had more Nosema in their midguts than did bees consuming the sucrose solution alone (control). The overall volume of diet consumed by the bees did not correlate with the level of Nosema in their midguts. The level of Nosema was higher in bees fed certain commercial pollen substitute diets than in bees fed wildflower pollen. Our study illustrates how providing nutritional supplements to adult honey bees can impact the intensity of Nosema in their midguts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The impact of inoculation method on Nosema levels in bees.Data are the average number of spores per bee (in millions) with the error bars denoting standard error. N = 17 for all treatment groups. The treatment groups are (1) control (bees fed a sucrose solution, no inoculum) (2) sucrose inoculum, no pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given no pollen), (3) sucrose inoculum, with pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given pollen), and (4) pollen inoculum, with sucrose solution (bees inoculated with Nosema through pollen). Treatment (method of inoculation) significantly affected Nosema levels in bees (ANOVA, F3,13 = 16.7, p<0.0001). Posthoc Tukey-HSD pairwise comparisons identified significant differences between treatments (data with the same letter are not different at α ≤ 0.05).
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pone.0132014.g001: The impact of inoculation method on Nosema levels in bees.Data are the average number of spores per bee (in millions) with the error bars denoting standard error. N = 17 for all treatment groups. The treatment groups are (1) control (bees fed a sucrose solution, no inoculum) (2) sucrose inoculum, no pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given no pollen), (3) sucrose inoculum, with pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given pollen), and (4) pollen inoculum, with sucrose solution (bees inoculated with Nosema through pollen). Treatment (method of inoculation) significantly affected Nosema levels in bees (ANOVA, F3,13 = 16.7, p<0.0001). Posthoc Tukey-HSD pairwise comparisons identified significant differences between treatments (data with the same letter are not different at α ≤ 0.05).

Mentions: Bees receiving the inoculum in the pollen had significantly elevated spore levels (15.9 million spores ± 1.8 million spores (n = 4), average number spores ± s.e. (n)) than those receiving the inoculum in the sucrose solution (5.6 million ± 2 million (n = 5), ANOVA, F3,12 = 16.7, p<0.0001, Fig 1). The Nosema levels in sucrose-inoculated bees fed pollen was higher than in sucrose-inoculated bees not fed pollen (1 million ± 0.23 million (n = 3)). There was a significantly greater number of Nosema spores in bees inoculated through the pollen diet than in those inoculated through the sucrose solution (Fig 1). However, a sucrose delivery of Nosema was determined to be preferable to Nosema delivery through pollen because all sucrose-inoculated cages received a consistent application of sucrose that the bees consumed completely. The consumption of pollen by the bees varied between cages, thus leading to fears of unequal inoculation rates among bees in cages receiving the inoculum through pollen.


Characterizing the Impact of Commercial Pollen Substitute Diets on the Level of Nosema spp. in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

Fleming JC, Schmehl DR, Ellis JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

The impact of inoculation method on Nosema levels in bees.Data are the average number of spores per bee (in millions) with the error bars denoting standard error. N = 17 for all treatment groups. The treatment groups are (1) control (bees fed a sucrose solution, no inoculum) (2) sucrose inoculum, no pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given no pollen), (3) sucrose inoculum, with pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given pollen), and (4) pollen inoculum, with sucrose solution (bees inoculated with Nosema through pollen). Treatment (method of inoculation) significantly affected Nosema levels in bees (ANOVA, F3,13 = 16.7, p<0.0001). Posthoc Tukey-HSD pairwise comparisons identified significant differences between treatments (data with the same letter are not different at α ≤ 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520664&req=5

pone.0132014.g001: The impact of inoculation method on Nosema levels in bees.Data are the average number of spores per bee (in millions) with the error bars denoting standard error. N = 17 for all treatment groups. The treatment groups are (1) control (bees fed a sucrose solution, no inoculum) (2) sucrose inoculum, no pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given no pollen), (3) sucrose inoculum, with pollen (bees inoculated with Nosema through a sucrose solution and given pollen), and (4) pollen inoculum, with sucrose solution (bees inoculated with Nosema through pollen). Treatment (method of inoculation) significantly affected Nosema levels in bees (ANOVA, F3,13 = 16.7, p<0.0001). Posthoc Tukey-HSD pairwise comparisons identified significant differences between treatments (data with the same letter are not different at α ≤ 0.05).
Mentions: Bees receiving the inoculum in the pollen had significantly elevated spore levels (15.9 million spores ± 1.8 million spores (n = 4), average number spores ± s.e. (n)) than those receiving the inoculum in the sucrose solution (5.6 million ± 2 million (n = 5), ANOVA, F3,12 = 16.7, p<0.0001, Fig 1). The Nosema levels in sucrose-inoculated bees fed pollen was higher than in sucrose-inoculated bees not fed pollen (1 million ± 0.23 million (n = 3)). There was a significantly greater number of Nosema spores in bees inoculated through the pollen diet than in those inoculated through the sucrose solution (Fig 1). However, a sucrose delivery of Nosema was determined to be preferable to Nosema delivery through pollen because all sucrose-inoculated cages received a consistent application of sucrose that the bees consumed completely. The consumption of pollen by the bees varied between cages, thus leading to fears of unequal inoculation rates among bees in cages receiving the inoculum through pollen.

Bottom Line: However Nosema spp., a microsporidian parasite of the honey bee, is thought to be associated closely with a colony's nutritional intake, thus possibly negating any benefit the bees otherwise would have received from a nutritional supplement.The overall volume of diet consumed by the bees did not correlate with the level of Nosema in their midguts.Our study illustrates how providing nutritional supplements to adult honey bees can impact the intensity of Nosema in their midguts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Entomology and Nematology Department, 970 Natural Area Drive, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations face declines commonly attributed to pesticide, pathogen, and parasite stress. One way beekeepers combat these stressors is by providing supplemental protein diets to honey bee colonies to ensure adequate colony nutrition. However Nosema spp., a microsporidian parasite of the honey bee, is thought to be associated closely with a colony's nutritional intake, thus possibly negating any benefit the bees otherwise would have received from a nutritional supplement. Through three objectives, we examined how adult bees' consumption of wildflower pollen or commercial pollen substitute diets affected Nosema levels in the bees' midguts. For our first objective, we investigated how method of inoculation with Nosema affects infection levels in inoculated bees. Bees were infected with spores of Nosema four days after emergence. On day 15, bees were collected from the cages and Nosema spores were quantified. We found that inoculation through the pollen diet resulted in the highest Nosema levels in inoculated bees. In our second and third objectives, we provided the test diets to caged, newly emerged bees for a period of 15 days. Bees consuming pollen and a sucrose solution had more Nosema in their midguts than did bees consuming the sucrose solution alone (control). The overall volume of diet consumed by the bees did not correlate with the level of Nosema in their midguts. The level of Nosema was higher in bees fed certain commercial pollen substitute diets than in bees fed wildflower pollen. Our study illustrates how providing nutritional supplements to adult honey bees can impact the intensity of Nosema in their midguts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus