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Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows.

Sciascia QL, Pacheco D, McCoard SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake.Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments.AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Physiology ''Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling.

No MeSH data available.


Mammary gland amino acid transporter mRNA abundance in dairy cows treated with growth hormone.Treatment with GH increased the mRNA abundance of heterodimeric heavy-chain L-arginine transporter SLC3A2. No significant change in mRNA abundance was detected for any of the other transporters measured. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and Src homology 2 domain containing 1 (SHC1) had the most stable expression of all the genes analyzed using Normfinder and were used as reference genes. The figure shows the fold change in gene expression in GH-treated cows compared with control cows as assessed by the relative expression software tool (n = 4 per treatment), *: P ≤ 0.05.
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pone.0134323.g004: Mammary gland amino acid transporter mRNA abundance in dairy cows treated with growth hormone.Treatment with GH increased the mRNA abundance of heterodimeric heavy-chain L-arginine transporter SLC3A2. No significant change in mRNA abundance was detected for any of the other transporters measured. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and Src homology 2 domain containing 1 (SHC1) had the most stable expression of all the genes analyzed using Normfinder and were used as reference genes. The figure shows the fold change in gene expression in GH-treated cows compared with control cows as assessed by the relative expression software tool (n = 4 per treatment), *: P ≤ 0.05.

Mentions: Treatment with GH increased mRNA abundance of the amino acid transporter SLC3A2 by 1.15-fold (Fig 4). The abundance of SLC1A1, SLC1A5, SLC7A5 and SLC6A14 mRNA did not change significantly.


Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows.

Sciascia QL, Pacheco D, McCoard SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mammary gland amino acid transporter mRNA abundance in dairy cows treated with growth hormone.Treatment with GH increased the mRNA abundance of heterodimeric heavy-chain L-arginine transporter SLC3A2. No significant change in mRNA abundance was detected for any of the other transporters measured. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and Src homology 2 domain containing 1 (SHC1) had the most stable expression of all the genes analyzed using Normfinder and were used as reference genes. The figure shows the fold change in gene expression in GH-treated cows compared with control cows as assessed by the relative expression software tool (n = 4 per treatment), *: P ≤ 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520662&req=5

pone.0134323.g004: Mammary gland amino acid transporter mRNA abundance in dairy cows treated with growth hormone.Treatment with GH increased the mRNA abundance of heterodimeric heavy-chain L-arginine transporter SLC3A2. No significant change in mRNA abundance was detected for any of the other transporters measured. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and Src homology 2 domain containing 1 (SHC1) had the most stable expression of all the genes analyzed using Normfinder and were used as reference genes. The figure shows the fold change in gene expression in GH-treated cows compared with control cows as assessed by the relative expression software tool (n = 4 per treatment), *: P ≤ 0.05.
Mentions: Treatment with GH increased mRNA abundance of the amino acid transporter SLC3A2 by 1.15-fold (Fig 4). The abundance of SLC1A1, SLC1A5, SLC7A5 and SLC6A14 mRNA did not change significantly.

Bottom Line: Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake.Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments.AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Physiology ''Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling.

No MeSH data available.