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Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows.

Sciascia QL, Pacheco D, McCoard SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake.Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments.AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Physiology ''Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Growth hormone treatment changes plasma and mammary tissue amino acid group concentration and variance.Absolute concentrations (heatmap) and statistical significance of differences in the mean concentration1 and variance2 of amino acid groups in the plasma (A) and the mammary tissue (B) of cows treated with growth hormone (GH) or saline solution (Control) (n = 4 per treatment). In plasma, there was a significantly reduction in group I AA and a trend for reduced arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. In mammary tissue there was a trend for increased concentrations of NEAA, total AA and arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. The variance in plasma concentrations of BCAA, EAA were reduced, while a similar trend was observed for group II. In the mammary tissue, the variance in concentration for BCAA, EAA, group I and group II was also reduced. Differences were assessed using the TTEST procedure in SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) which included the fixed effects of animal, treatment and amino acid (individual or pool). *: P ≤ 0.05; and trend: †: P ≤ 0.15).
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pone.0134323.g003: Growth hormone treatment changes plasma and mammary tissue amino acid group concentration and variance.Absolute concentrations (heatmap) and statistical significance of differences in the mean concentration1 and variance2 of amino acid groups in the plasma (A) and the mammary tissue (B) of cows treated with growth hormone (GH) or saline solution (Control) (n = 4 per treatment). In plasma, there was a significantly reduction in group I AA and a trend for reduced arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. In mammary tissue there was a trend for increased concentrations of NEAA, total AA and arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. The variance in plasma concentrations of BCAA, EAA were reduced, while a similar trend was observed for group II. In the mammary tissue, the variance in concentration for BCAA, EAA, group I and group II was also reduced. Differences were assessed using the TTEST procedure in SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) which included the fixed effects of animal, treatment and amino acid (individual or pool). *: P ≤ 0.05; and trend: †: P ≤ 0.15).

Mentions: In the plasma, concentration of group I AA were significantly reduced (P = 0.01), while a trend (P = 0.11) in reduced concentration of arginine-family of AA was observed in GH-treated cows compared to controls (Fig 3A). No difference was observed for the concentrations of EAA, NEAA, total AA, group II or BCAA (Fig 3A). In the mammary tissue, there were trends for increased concentrations of NEAA (P = 0.09), total AA (P = 0.06) and the arginine-family of AA in GH-treated cows compared to controls (Fig 3B). No difference was observed for the concentrations of EAA, group I, group II or BCAA (Fig 3B).


Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows.

Sciascia QL, Pacheco D, McCoard SA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Growth hormone treatment changes plasma and mammary tissue amino acid group concentration and variance.Absolute concentrations (heatmap) and statistical significance of differences in the mean concentration1 and variance2 of amino acid groups in the plasma (A) and the mammary tissue (B) of cows treated with growth hormone (GH) or saline solution (Control) (n = 4 per treatment). In plasma, there was a significantly reduction in group I AA and a trend for reduced arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. In mammary tissue there was a trend for increased concentrations of NEAA, total AA and arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. The variance in plasma concentrations of BCAA, EAA were reduced, while a similar trend was observed for group II. In the mammary tissue, the variance in concentration for BCAA, EAA, group I and group II was also reduced. Differences were assessed using the TTEST procedure in SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) which included the fixed effects of animal, treatment and amino acid (individual or pool). *: P ≤ 0.05; and trend: †: P ≤ 0.15).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520662&req=5

pone.0134323.g003: Growth hormone treatment changes plasma and mammary tissue amino acid group concentration and variance.Absolute concentrations (heatmap) and statistical significance of differences in the mean concentration1 and variance2 of amino acid groups in the plasma (A) and the mammary tissue (B) of cows treated with growth hormone (GH) or saline solution (Control) (n = 4 per treatment). In plasma, there was a significantly reduction in group I AA and a trend for reduced arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. In mammary tissue there was a trend for increased concentrations of NEAA, total AA and arginine-family AA in GH-treated compared to control cows. The variance in plasma concentrations of BCAA, EAA were reduced, while a similar trend was observed for group II. In the mammary tissue, the variance in concentration for BCAA, EAA, group I and group II was also reduced. Differences were assessed using the TTEST procedure in SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) which included the fixed effects of animal, treatment and amino acid (individual or pool). *: P ≤ 0.05; and trend: †: P ≤ 0.15).
Mentions: In the plasma, concentration of group I AA were significantly reduced (P = 0.01), while a trend (P = 0.11) in reduced concentration of arginine-family of AA was observed in GH-treated cows compared to controls (Fig 3A). No difference was observed for the concentrations of EAA, NEAA, total AA, group II or BCAA (Fig 3A). In the mammary tissue, there were trends for increased concentrations of NEAA (P = 0.09), total AA (P = 0.06) and the arginine-family of AA in GH-treated cows compared to controls (Fig 3B). No difference was observed for the concentrations of EAA, group I, group II or BCAA (Fig 3B).

Bottom Line: Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake.Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments.AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Physiology ''Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus