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Cellular and molecular determinants of all-trans retinoic acid sensitivity in breast cancer: Luminal phenotype and RARα expression.

Centritto F, Paroni G, Bolis M, Garattini SK, Kurosaki M, Barzago MM, Zanetti A, Fisher JN, Scott MF, Pattini L, Lupi M, Ubezio P, Piccotti F, Zambelli A, Rizzo P, Gianni' M, Fratelli M, Terao M, Garattini E - EMBO Mol Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Luminal and ER(+) (estrogen-receptor-positive) cell lines are generally sensitive to ATRA, while refractoriness/low sensitivity is associated with a Basal phenotype and HER2 positivity.Pathway-oriented analysis of the constitutive gene-expression profiles in the cell lines identifies RARα as the member of the retinoid pathway directly associated with a Luminal phenotype, estrogen positivity and ATRA sensitivity.All this is paralleled by similar effects on ATRA-dependent inhibition of cell motility, indicating that RARα may mediate also ATRA anti-metastatic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Biology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Milano, Italy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gene sets associated with ATRA sensitivityUsing the microarray and RNA-seq data associated with the breast cancer cell lines, two ATRA score-associated gene lists ranked for their variable importance were generated. Upper Panels: The gene-expression results of the first 100-ranking genes in the RNA-seq (left) and microarray (right) datasets were used to perform a cluster analysis of the breast cancer cell lines according to the gene-expression profiles. Data are expressed using a log2 scale of the expression signal intensity after normalization of the data across the different cell lines. The genes marked in red are present in both the microarray and the RNA-seq gene sets. The cell lines marked in red are those belonging to the ATRA score T1 group and are sensitive to ATRA, while the ones marked in blue belong to the T3 group and are refractory to the retinoid. The left dark blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of constitutive expression in the ATRA-sensitive cell lines, while the light blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of basal expression in the ATRA-refractory cell lines. Lower Panels: The box plots show the enrichment score (single sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, ssGSEA) of the microarray (left) and RNA-seq (right) gene sets in the TN (patients 9, 22, 23, 31, 50) and Lum (patients 13, 18, 27, 36, 41, 44, 55, 60, 61, 62, 64) tumors cultured in the absence of ATRA for 48 h. The P-values of the enrichment are indicated.
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fig11: Gene sets associated with ATRA sensitivityUsing the microarray and RNA-seq data associated with the breast cancer cell lines, two ATRA score-associated gene lists ranked for their variable importance were generated. Upper Panels: The gene-expression results of the first 100-ranking genes in the RNA-seq (left) and microarray (right) datasets were used to perform a cluster analysis of the breast cancer cell lines according to the gene-expression profiles. Data are expressed using a log2 scale of the expression signal intensity after normalization of the data across the different cell lines. The genes marked in red are present in both the microarray and the RNA-seq gene sets. The cell lines marked in red are those belonging to the ATRA score T1 group and are sensitive to ATRA, while the ones marked in blue belong to the T3 group and are refractory to the retinoid. The left dark blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of constitutive expression in the ATRA-sensitive cell lines, while the light blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of basal expression in the ATRA-refractory cell lines. Lower Panels: The box plots show the enrichment score (single sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, ssGSEA) of the microarray (left) and RNA-seq (right) gene sets in the TN (patients 9, 22, 23, 31, 50) and Lum (patients 13, 18, 27, 36, 41, 44, 55, 60, 61, 62, 64) tumors cultured in the absence of ATRA for 48 h. The P-values of the enrichment are indicated.

Mentions: We generated two distinct expression heat-maps of the top 100 RNA-seq (Fig11, left) and microarray (Fig1, right) genes associated with ATRA sensitivity in the two databases. Fourteen of the genes are common to the microarray and RNA-seq gene sets. This is a high proportion considering the large difference in the quantifiable gene products between the two datasets (RNA-seq = 57,789; microarray = 15,543). Cluster analysis of both the microarray and RNA-seq data allows a clear separation of the lines belonging to the T1 and T3 groups identified by the ATRA score. Although our gene sets may contain elements specific to Luminal or Basal cell lines, as indicated by the presence of three PAM50 genes (estrogen receptor 1, ESR1; progesterone receptor, PGR; CXXC finger protein 5, CXXC5), it must be noticed that they do not simply stratify the cell lines according to the Luminal or Basal phenotype. To validate the expression results with an independent assay, we performed quantitative real-time PCR on 14 selected genes. The PCR, microarray, and RNA-seq results are concordant (Supplementary Fig S14).


Cellular and molecular determinants of all-trans retinoic acid sensitivity in breast cancer: Luminal phenotype and RARα expression.

Centritto F, Paroni G, Bolis M, Garattini SK, Kurosaki M, Barzago MM, Zanetti A, Fisher JN, Scott MF, Pattini L, Lupi M, Ubezio P, Piccotti F, Zambelli A, Rizzo P, Gianni' M, Fratelli M, Terao M, Garattini E - EMBO Mol Med (2015)

Gene sets associated with ATRA sensitivityUsing the microarray and RNA-seq data associated with the breast cancer cell lines, two ATRA score-associated gene lists ranked for their variable importance were generated. Upper Panels: The gene-expression results of the first 100-ranking genes in the RNA-seq (left) and microarray (right) datasets were used to perform a cluster analysis of the breast cancer cell lines according to the gene-expression profiles. Data are expressed using a log2 scale of the expression signal intensity after normalization of the data across the different cell lines. The genes marked in red are present in both the microarray and the RNA-seq gene sets. The cell lines marked in red are those belonging to the ATRA score T1 group and are sensitive to ATRA, while the ones marked in blue belong to the T3 group and are refractory to the retinoid. The left dark blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of constitutive expression in the ATRA-sensitive cell lines, while the light blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of basal expression in the ATRA-refractory cell lines. Lower Panels: The box plots show the enrichment score (single sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, ssGSEA) of the microarray (left) and RNA-seq (right) gene sets in the TN (patients 9, 22, 23, 31, 50) and Lum (patients 13, 18, 27, 36, 41, 44, 55, 60, 61, 62, 64) tumors cultured in the absence of ATRA for 48 h. The P-values of the enrichment are indicated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520659&req=5

fig11: Gene sets associated with ATRA sensitivityUsing the microarray and RNA-seq data associated with the breast cancer cell lines, two ATRA score-associated gene lists ranked for their variable importance were generated. Upper Panels: The gene-expression results of the first 100-ranking genes in the RNA-seq (left) and microarray (right) datasets were used to perform a cluster analysis of the breast cancer cell lines according to the gene-expression profiles. Data are expressed using a log2 scale of the expression signal intensity after normalization of the data across the different cell lines. The genes marked in red are present in both the microarray and the RNA-seq gene sets. The cell lines marked in red are those belonging to the ATRA score T1 group and are sensitive to ATRA, while the ones marked in blue belong to the T3 group and are refractory to the retinoid. The left dark blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of constitutive expression in the ATRA-sensitive cell lines, while the light blue lines indicate the genes with higher levels of basal expression in the ATRA-refractory cell lines. Lower Panels: The box plots show the enrichment score (single sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, ssGSEA) of the microarray (left) and RNA-seq (right) gene sets in the TN (patients 9, 22, 23, 31, 50) and Lum (patients 13, 18, 27, 36, 41, 44, 55, 60, 61, 62, 64) tumors cultured in the absence of ATRA for 48 h. The P-values of the enrichment are indicated.
Mentions: We generated two distinct expression heat-maps of the top 100 RNA-seq (Fig11, left) and microarray (Fig1, right) genes associated with ATRA sensitivity in the two databases. Fourteen of the genes are common to the microarray and RNA-seq gene sets. This is a high proportion considering the large difference in the quantifiable gene products between the two datasets (RNA-seq = 57,789; microarray = 15,543). Cluster analysis of both the microarray and RNA-seq data allows a clear separation of the lines belonging to the T1 and T3 groups identified by the ATRA score. Although our gene sets may contain elements specific to Luminal or Basal cell lines, as indicated by the presence of three PAM50 genes (estrogen receptor 1, ESR1; progesterone receptor, PGR; CXXC finger protein 5, CXXC5), it must be noticed that they do not simply stratify the cell lines according to the Luminal or Basal phenotype. To validate the expression results with an independent assay, we performed quantitative real-time PCR on 14 selected genes. The PCR, microarray, and RNA-seq results are concordant (Supplementary Fig S14).

Bottom Line: Luminal and ER(+) (estrogen-receptor-positive) cell lines are generally sensitive to ATRA, while refractoriness/low sensitivity is associated with a Basal phenotype and HER2 positivity.Pathway-oriented analysis of the constitutive gene-expression profiles in the cell lines identifies RARα as the member of the retinoid pathway directly associated with a Luminal phenotype, estrogen positivity and ATRA sensitivity.All this is paralleled by similar effects on ATRA-dependent inhibition of cell motility, indicating that RARα may mediate also ATRA anti-metastatic effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Biology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Milano, Italy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus