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Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.


Genetic differentiation among F. insipida sampling sites located in Panama, Costa Rica and Peru.Genetic differentiation given as Jost´s Dest increases linearly with spatial distance as expected under IBD or IBB (adjusted R2 = 0.962, p < 0.001). As there was no population substructure among Panamanian sampling sites, they are represented by one data point at short distance while the other data points are pairwise comparisons among Panama, Costa Rica, Western and Eastern Peru.
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pone.0133581.g004: Genetic differentiation among F. insipida sampling sites located in Panama, Costa Rica and Peru.Genetic differentiation given as Jost´s Dest increases linearly with spatial distance as expected under IBD or IBB (adjusted R2 = 0.962, p < 0.001). As there was no population substructure among Panamanian sampling sites, they are represented by one data point at short distance while the other data points are pairwise comparisons among Panama, Costa Rica, Western and Eastern Peru.

Mentions: At the regional scale, genetic differentiation among sampling sites located along the Panama Canal was low (Dest = 0.009 ± 0.006, FST = 0.006 ± 0.004) and did not increase with distance. The STRUCTURE analysis detected only one cluster in this entire area. In contrast, at the biogeographic scale (Costa Rica to Peru) we found a strong linear correlation of Dest over linear Euclidian distance (adjusted R2 = 0.962, p < 0.001, Fig 4, corresponding FST in Table 3). The most likely number of clusters of the corresponding STRUCTURE analysis was K = 2 separating the samples from Peru and Central America. However, the Evanno method has a strong bias to identify K = 2 as the most likely number due to the low variance of K = 1 [53]. Thus, we also assessed the second most likely number of clusters, which was K = 5. In that case, the samples from Peru and Costa Rica clustered separately while individuals from Panama were jointly assigned to three clusters (S2 Fig).


Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Genetic differentiation among F. insipida sampling sites located in Panama, Costa Rica and Peru.Genetic differentiation given as Jost´s Dest increases linearly with spatial distance as expected under IBD or IBB (adjusted R2 = 0.962, p < 0.001). As there was no population substructure among Panamanian sampling sites, they are represented by one data point at short distance while the other data points are pairwise comparisons among Panama, Costa Rica, Western and Eastern Peru.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520606&req=5

pone.0133581.g004: Genetic differentiation among F. insipida sampling sites located in Panama, Costa Rica and Peru.Genetic differentiation given as Jost´s Dest increases linearly with spatial distance as expected under IBD or IBB (adjusted R2 = 0.962, p < 0.001). As there was no population substructure among Panamanian sampling sites, they are represented by one data point at short distance while the other data points are pairwise comparisons among Panama, Costa Rica, Western and Eastern Peru.
Mentions: At the regional scale, genetic differentiation among sampling sites located along the Panama Canal was low (Dest = 0.009 ± 0.006, FST = 0.006 ± 0.004) and did not increase with distance. The STRUCTURE analysis detected only one cluster in this entire area. In contrast, at the biogeographic scale (Costa Rica to Peru) we found a strong linear correlation of Dest over linear Euclidian distance (adjusted R2 = 0.962, p < 0.001, Fig 4, corresponding FST in Table 3). The most likely number of clusters of the corresponding STRUCTURE analysis was K = 2 separating the samples from Peru and Central America. However, the Evanno method has a strong bias to identify K = 2 as the most likely number due to the low variance of K = 1 [53]. Thus, we also assessed the second most likely number of clusters, which was K = 5. In that case, the samples from Peru and Costa Rica clustered separately while individuals from Panama were jointly assigned to three clusters (S2 Fig).

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.