Limits...
Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.


Simulation results of the pollen dispersal model.Results are based on simulations with a receptive and release phase of six days. Boxplots represent the number of trees that can act as potential pollen for each receptive F. inspida tree at the given distance classes. Results are based on 10 runs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520606&req=5

pone.0133581.g003: Simulation results of the pollen dispersal model.Results are based on simulations with a receptive and release phase of six days. Boxplots represent the number of trees that can act as potential pollen for each receptive F. inspida tree at the given distance classes. Results are based on 10 runs.

Mentions: When the receptive and release phase in our model were set to six days, we found that 48 out of 342 F. insipida trees had no potential mate within a radius of 500 m (mean number of mating partners < 500 m: 1.7 ± 1.0). On average, 4.0 ± 2.1 potential pollen donors could be encountered within a radius of 1 km in our simulations (Fig 3). In total, each receptive tree could potentially receive pollen from 25.8 ± 2.3 trees in our simulation. Mean distance between potential mating partners was 3.0 ± 0.5 km. If the receptive and release phase lasted for five or seven days, mean number of pollen donors decreased by 13% and increased by 14%, respectively (S4 Fig).


Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Simulation results of the pollen dispersal model.Results are based on simulations with a receptive and release phase of six days. Boxplots represent the number of trees that can act as potential pollen for each receptive F. inspida tree at the given distance classes. Results are based on 10 runs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520606&req=5

pone.0133581.g003: Simulation results of the pollen dispersal model.Results are based on simulations with a receptive and release phase of six days. Boxplots represent the number of trees that can act as potential pollen for each receptive F. inspida tree at the given distance classes. Results are based on 10 runs.
Mentions: When the receptive and release phase in our model were set to six days, we found that 48 out of 342 F. insipida trees had no potential mate within a radius of 500 m (mean number of mating partners < 500 m: 1.7 ± 1.0). On average, 4.0 ± 2.1 potential pollen donors could be encountered within a radius of 1 km in our simulations (Fig 3). In total, each receptive tree could potentially receive pollen from 25.8 ± 2.3 trees in our simulation. Mean distance between potential mating partners was 3.0 ± 0.5 km. If the receptive and release phase lasted for five or seven days, mean number of pollen donors decreased by 13% and increased by 14%, respectively (S4 Fig).

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.