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Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.


Average kinship over distance for the investigated fig species.Pairwise kinship is determined by Loiselle´s kinship coefficient (Fij) for F. citrifolia (nind = 62, ncomp = 236), F. obtusifolia (nind = 59, ncomp = 214), F. insipida (nind = 190, ncomp = 1795) and F. yoponensis (nind = 37, ncomp = 133) Dotted lines represent 95% confidence interval. Depending on the pairwise kinship, scales on the y axis vary among graphs. (nind = number of sampled individuals, ncomp = number of pairwise comparisons per distance class).
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pone.0133581.g002: Average kinship over distance for the investigated fig species.Pairwise kinship is determined by Loiselle´s kinship coefficient (Fij) for F. citrifolia (nind = 62, ncomp = 236), F. obtusifolia (nind = 59, ncomp = 214), F. insipida (nind = 190, ncomp = 1795) and F. yoponensis (nind = 37, ncomp = 133) Dotted lines represent 95% confidence interval. Depending on the pairwise kinship, scales on the y axis vary among graphs. (nind = number of sampled individuals, ncomp = number of pairwise comparisons per distance class).

Mentions: The autocorrelation analysis largely supported the finding of significant SGS and indicated that pairwise kinship was higher than expected under conditions of random pollen and seed dispersal (reflected by the 95% CI) for distance classes up to 1 km in F. insipida (Fig 2). For both strangler figs the pairwise kinship coefficient of the first distance class (mean pairwise distance < 500 m) was significant. In F. yoponensis, the autocorrelations was not significant, but Fij decreases with increasing distance as well except for the first distance class.


Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Average kinship over distance for the investigated fig species.Pairwise kinship is determined by Loiselle´s kinship coefficient (Fij) for F. citrifolia (nind = 62, ncomp = 236), F. obtusifolia (nind = 59, ncomp = 214), F. insipida (nind = 190, ncomp = 1795) and F. yoponensis (nind = 37, ncomp = 133) Dotted lines represent 95% confidence interval. Depending on the pairwise kinship, scales on the y axis vary among graphs. (nind = number of sampled individuals, ncomp = number of pairwise comparisons per distance class).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520606&req=5

pone.0133581.g002: Average kinship over distance for the investigated fig species.Pairwise kinship is determined by Loiselle´s kinship coefficient (Fij) for F. citrifolia (nind = 62, ncomp = 236), F. obtusifolia (nind = 59, ncomp = 214), F. insipida (nind = 190, ncomp = 1795) and F. yoponensis (nind = 37, ncomp = 133) Dotted lines represent 95% confidence interval. Depending on the pairwise kinship, scales on the y axis vary among graphs. (nind = number of sampled individuals, ncomp = number of pairwise comparisons per distance class).
Mentions: The autocorrelation analysis largely supported the finding of significant SGS and indicated that pairwise kinship was higher than expected under conditions of random pollen and seed dispersal (reflected by the 95% CI) for distance classes up to 1 km in F. insipida (Fig 2). For both strangler figs the pairwise kinship coefficient of the first distance class (mean pairwise distance < 500 m) was significant. In F. yoponensis, the autocorrelations was not significant, but Fij decreases with increasing distance as well except for the first distance class.

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.