Limits...
Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.


Sampling sites of F. insipida located along the Panama Canal.Black dots indicate sampled individuals. (BCNM: Barro Colorado Nature Monument, BCI: Barro Colorado Island, PLR: Pipeline Road, detailed maps for all species sampled in BCNM are presented in S3 Fig).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520606&req=5

pone.0133581.g001: Sampling sites of F. insipida located along the Panama Canal.Black dots indicate sampled individuals. (BCNM: Barro Colorado Nature Monument, BCI: Barro Colorado Island, PLR: Pipeline Road, detailed maps for all species sampled in BCNM are presented in S3 Fig).

Mentions: The study of local SGS was conducted in tropical moist forest on several islands and peninsulas within the Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM, Fig 1 and S1 Fig), Republic of Panama. Annual rainfall at BCNM averages 2,600 mm and there is a pronounced dry season from mid-December to mid-April. The largest island in the BCNM with about 15.6 km2 is Barro Colorado Island (BCI) where adult figs have been censused repeatedly since 1973 [24,25]. Since 1982, fig populations have been censused along the shoreline of many additional islands and peninsulas (Albrecht, Herre, unpubl. data), and we collected samples of a high number of individuals despite the low population densities of the four targeted fig species. The free-standing F. insipida (n = 190) is by far the most common fig species in the vicinity of the Panama Canal and relatively abundant along the shoreline as well as on the North-Eastern part of BCI which is covered by secondary forest of about 90–150 years [26]. In contrast, the free-standing fig F. yoponensis (n = 37) is relatively rare along most shorelines and thus sampling was limited to the secondary forest on BCI. The strangler figs F. citrifolia (n = 62) and F. obtusifolia (n = 59) were mostly sampled along the shoreline, as few individuals are known from the core region of the main island (S1 Fig). Because exhaustive census data are restricted to the main island and to the shoreline of the surrounding islands and peninsulas, we were not able to determine the overall fig tree density but calculated Nearest Neighbor (NN) distances based on all censused individuals (Table 1).


Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

Heer K, Kalko EK, Albrecht L, García-Villacorta R, Staeps FC, Herre EA, Dick CW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sampling sites of F. insipida located along the Panama Canal.Black dots indicate sampled individuals. (BCNM: Barro Colorado Nature Monument, BCI: Barro Colorado Island, PLR: Pipeline Road, detailed maps for all species sampled in BCNM are presented in S3 Fig).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520606&req=5

pone.0133581.g001: Sampling sites of F. insipida located along the Panama Canal.Black dots indicate sampled individuals. (BCNM: Barro Colorado Nature Monument, BCI: Barro Colorado Island, PLR: Pipeline Road, detailed maps for all species sampled in BCNM are presented in S3 Fig).
Mentions: The study of local SGS was conducted in tropical moist forest on several islands and peninsulas within the Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM, Fig 1 and S1 Fig), Republic of Panama. Annual rainfall at BCNM averages 2,600 mm and there is a pronounced dry season from mid-December to mid-April. The largest island in the BCNM with about 15.6 km2 is Barro Colorado Island (BCI) where adult figs have been censused repeatedly since 1973 [24,25]. Since 1982, fig populations have been censused along the shoreline of many additional islands and peninsulas (Albrecht, Herre, unpubl. data), and we collected samples of a high number of individuals despite the low population densities of the four targeted fig species. The free-standing F. insipida (n = 190) is by far the most common fig species in the vicinity of the Panama Canal and relatively abundant along the shoreline as well as on the North-Eastern part of BCI which is covered by secondary forest of about 90–150 years [26]. In contrast, the free-standing fig F. yoponensis (n = 37) is relatively rare along most shorelines and thus sampling was limited to the secondary forest on BCI. The strangler figs F. citrifolia (n = 62) and F. obtusifolia (n = 59) were mostly sampled along the shoreline, as few individuals are known from the core region of the main island (S1 Fig). Because exhaustive census data are restricted to the main island and to the shoreline of the surrounding islands and peninsulas, we were not able to determine the overall fig tree density but calculated Nearest Neighbor (NN) distances based on all censused individuals (Table 1).

Bottom Line: All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012).Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal.We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Conservation Biology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

No MeSH data available.