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Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group.

Eskridge BE, Valle E, Schlupp I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical.Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers.Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Network Engineering, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histories of LT value differentiation for (a) fast and (b) slow evaluations.The evaluations both used a group size of 10 and initially low LT values. In both evaluations, LT values were distributed at the extremes of the allowed range of values after differentiation, but the number of simulated movement attempts required for differentiation differed between evaluations.
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pone.0134222.g004: Histories of LT value differentiation for (a) fast and (b) slow evaluations.The evaluations both used a group size of 10 and initially low LT values. In both evaluations, LT values were distributed at the extremes of the allowed range of values after differentiation, but the number of simulated movement attempts required for differentiation differed between evaluations.

Mentions: Fig 4 depicts the LT value histories for two different evaluations using initially low LT values and a group size of 10. In the first evaluation, an individual differentiated into a high LT individual rapidly (under 1,000 simulated attempts), while a similar agent took over 7,000 attempts to differentiate in the second. Fig 5 shows the mean number of initiation attempts as a percentage of the total number of simulations for individual LT values to differentiate into distinct high and low values. As noted above, a LT value was defined as having emerged as high when the individual i’s LT value transitioned such that Li ≥ 0.775 as determined by a breakpoint analysis using the R package strucchange [27]. The mean number of initiations required for differentiation of LT values was less than 15% of the total number of initiation attempts for evaluations of all group sizes and initial LT values except for evaluations with a group size of 10 and initially high LT values, which required 17±3% (see S3 Table for a complete statistical analysis). For a group size of 10, evaluations using initially high LT values took longer to differentiate than evaluations using initially low or moderate LT values. However, for group sizes of 40 and larger, evaluations using initially high LT values differentiated faster and the overall number of initiation attempts required for differentiation as a percentage of the total number of initiation attempts remained consistent.


Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group.

Eskridge BE, Valle E, Schlupp I - PLoS ONE (2015)

Histories of LT value differentiation for (a) fast and (b) slow evaluations.The evaluations both used a group size of 10 and initially low LT values. In both evaluations, LT values were distributed at the extremes of the allowed range of values after differentiation, but the number of simulated movement attempts required for differentiation differed between evaluations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520564&req=5

pone.0134222.g004: Histories of LT value differentiation for (a) fast and (b) slow evaluations.The evaluations both used a group size of 10 and initially low LT values. In both evaluations, LT values were distributed at the extremes of the allowed range of values after differentiation, but the number of simulated movement attempts required for differentiation differed between evaluations.
Mentions: Fig 4 depicts the LT value histories for two different evaluations using initially low LT values and a group size of 10. In the first evaluation, an individual differentiated into a high LT individual rapidly (under 1,000 simulated attempts), while a similar agent took over 7,000 attempts to differentiate in the second. Fig 5 shows the mean number of initiation attempts as a percentage of the total number of simulations for individual LT values to differentiate into distinct high and low values. As noted above, a LT value was defined as having emerged as high when the individual i’s LT value transitioned such that Li ≥ 0.775 as determined by a breakpoint analysis using the R package strucchange [27]. The mean number of initiations required for differentiation of LT values was less than 15% of the total number of initiation attempts for evaluations of all group sizes and initial LT values except for evaluations with a group size of 10 and initially high LT values, which required 17±3% (see S3 Table for a complete statistical analysis). For a group size of 10, evaluations using initially high LT values took longer to differentiate than evaluations using initially low or moderate LT values. However, for group sizes of 40 and larger, evaluations using initially high LT values differentiated faster and the overall number of initiation attempts required for differentiation as a percentage of the total number of initiation attempts remained consistent.

Bottom Line: In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical.Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers.Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Network Engineering, Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, Oklahoma, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus