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Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle.

McCabe MS, Cormican P, Keogh K, O'Connor A, O'Hara E, Palladino RA, Kenny DA, Waters SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004).Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28.Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Bioscience Research Department, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Grange, Dunsany, County Meath, Ireland.

ABSTRACT
Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004). There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10(-20)) between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10(-20)) and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01) but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme of compensatory growth animal model.
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pone.0133234.g001: Scheme of compensatory growth animal model.

Mentions: All procedures involving animals were approved by the University College Dublin, Animal Research Ethics Committee and licensed by the Irish Department of Health and Children in accordance with the European Community Directive 86/609/EC. Animals were slaughtered using standard procedures (captive bolt stunning and exsanguination) at a licensed abattoir. An outline of the model is shown in Fig 1. A group of 60 Holstein-Friesian bulls (479 ±15 days old) was divided into two groups of 30 animals. One group was subjected to an ad libitum diet (group A) and the other group was subjected to a restricted diet (group R). Both groups A and R received a 70% concentrate, and 30% grass silage diet. The concentrate formulation was: rolled barley 72.5%, soya 22.5%, molasses 3%, calf mineral 2%. Group R animals were fed to grow at 0.6 kg/day for 125 days and animals on the ad libitum diet were predicted to grow in excess of 1.5 kg per day. For this, diets were calculated daily for each animal and fed individually, using Calan gates (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) with the proportion of feed required estimated based on each animal’s own live weight and expected rate of gain. At 125 days, 15 animals from each group (R and A) were slaughtered (September, 2011) and rumen contents were collected. The remaining 15 animals from both group R and group A were then offered an ad libitum diet for a further 55 days, slaughtered (November, 2011) and their rumen contents collected. These animals were designated as RA and AA. In summary, there were four groups of bulls R, A, RA and AA. All bulls received the same high digestibility diet throughout the experiment except that the diet was restricted in one group. Group R was on the restricted diet for 125 days, group A was on an ad libitum diet for 125 days, group RA was on a restricted diet for 125 days then an ad libitum diet for 55 days (compensatory growth period), group AA was on an ad libitum diet for 180 days. One group R animal, two group A animals and two group AA animals were removed from the study due to illness, leaving 14 R, 13 A, 15 RA, 13 AA and animals.


Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle.

McCabe MS, Cormican P, Keogh K, O'Connor A, O'Hara E, Palladino RA, Kenny DA, Waters SM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Scheme of compensatory growth animal model.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520551&req=5

pone.0133234.g001: Scheme of compensatory growth animal model.
Mentions: All procedures involving animals were approved by the University College Dublin, Animal Research Ethics Committee and licensed by the Irish Department of Health and Children in accordance with the European Community Directive 86/609/EC. Animals were slaughtered using standard procedures (captive bolt stunning and exsanguination) at a licensed abattoir. An outline of the model is shown in Fig 1. A group of 60 Holstein-Friesian bulls (479 ±15 days old) was divided into two groups of 30 animals. One group was subjected to an ad libitum diet (group A) and the other group was subjected to a restricted diet (group R). Both groups A and R received a 70% concentrate, and 30% grass silage diet. The concentrate formulation was: rolled barley 72.5%, soya 22.5%, molasses 3%, calf mineral 2%. Group R animals were fed to grow at 0.6 kg/day for 125 days and animals on the ad libitum diet were predicted to grow in excess of 1.5 kg per day. For this, diets were calculated daily for each animal and fed individually, using Calan gates (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) with the proportion of feed required estimated based on each animal’s own live weight and expected rate of gain. At 125 days, 15 animals from each group (R and A) were slaughtered (September, 2011) and rumen contents were collected. The remaining 15 animals from both group R and group A were then offered an ad libitum diet for a further 55 days, slaughtered (November, 2011) and their rumen contents collected. These animals were designated as RA and AA. In summary, there were four groups of bulls R, A, RA and AA. All bulls received the same high digestibility diet throughout the experiment except that the diet was restricted in one group. Group R was on the restricted diet for 125 days, group A was on an ad libitum diet for 125 days, group RA was on a restricted diet for 125 days then an ad libitum diet for 55 days (compensatory growth period), group AA was on an ad libitum diet for 180 days. One group R animal, two group A animals and two group AA animals were removed from the study due to illness, leaving 14 R, 13 A, 15 RA, 13 AA and animals.

Bottom Line: Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004).Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28.Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Bioscience Research Department, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Grange, Dunsany, County Meath, Ireland.

ABSTRACT
Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004). There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10(-20)) between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10(-20)) and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01) but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus