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The Phylogeny and Evolutionary Timescale of Muscoidea (Diptera: Brachycera: Calyptratae) Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes.

Ding S, Li X, Wang N, Cameron SL, Mao M, Wang Y, Xi Y, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Muscoidea is a significant dipteran clade that includes house flies (Family Muscidae), latrine flies (F.Anthomyiidae).The main divergence within the paraphyletic muscoidea grade was between Fanniidae + Muscidae and the lineage ((Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae) + (Calliphoridae + Sarcophagidae)) which occurred in the Late Eocene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Muscoidea is a significant dipteran clade that includes house flies (Family Muscidae), latrine flies (F. Fannidae), dung flies (F. Scathophagidae) and root maggot flies (F. Anthomyiidae). It is comprised of approximately 7000 described species. The monophyly of the Muscoidea and the precise relationships of muscoids to the closest superfamily the Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies etc) are both unresolved. Until now mitochondrial (mt) genomes were available for only two of the four muscoid families precluding a thorough test of phylogenetic relationships using this data source. Here we present the first two mt genomes for the families Fanniidae (Euryomma sp.) (family Fanniidae) and Anthomyiidae (Delia platura (Meigen, 1826)). We also conducted phylogenetic analyses containing of these newly sequenced mt genomes plus 15 other species representative of dipteran diversity to address the internal relationship of Muscoidea and its systematic position. Both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggested that Muscoidea was not a monophyletic group with the relationship: (Fanniidae + Muscidae) + ((Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae) + (Calliphoridae + Sarcophagidae)), supported by the majority of analysed datasets. This also infers that Oestroidea was paraphyletic in the majority of analyses. Divergence time estimation suggested that the earliest split within the Calyptratae, separating (Tachinidae + Oestridae) from the remaining families, occurred in the Early Eocene. The main divergence within the paraphyletic muscoidea grade was between Fanniidae + Muscidae and the lineage ((Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae) + (Calliphoridae + Sarcophagidae)) which occurred in the Late Eocene.

No MeSH data available.


Predicted secondary structure of the srRNA gene in muscoid flies.Gene sequence from Delia mt genome. Inferred Watson–Crick bonds are illustrated bylines, GU bonds by dots. Roman numerals denote the conserved domain structure. The darker circles indicate the conserved sites among all six muscoid species while the lighter circles indicate the unconserved sites.
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pone.0134170.g003: Predicted secondary structure of the srRNA gene in muscoid flies.Gene sequence from Delia mt genome. Inferred Watson–Crick bonds are illustrated bylines, GU bonds by dots. Roman numerals denote the conserved domain structure. The darker circles indicate the conserved sites among all six muscoid species while the lighter circles indicate the unconserved sites.

Mentions: We inferred secondary structures of lrRNA and srRNA of muscoid flies using the published rRNA secondary structures of Drosophila yakuba (Diptera) [20], Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) [26], and Libelloides macaronius (Neuroptera) [27] as reference [54]. lrRNA has 49 helices in five structural domains (I-II, IV-VI, domain III is absent as in other Arthropoda), similar to other arthropods [60] (Fig 2). The secondary structures of srRNA in Muscoidea include three domains and 33 helices, similar to other Diptera [55] (Fig 3). Due to the high level of sequence conservation within the rRNA genes of muscoids, such variability as was present was mapped onto the secondary structure inferred for Delia (sites conserved in all 6 species marked in dark blue, variable sites uncoloured; Figs 2 and 3).


The Phylogeny and Evolutionary Timescale of Muscoidea (Diptera: Brachycera: Calyptratae) Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes.

Ding S, Li X, Wang N, Cameron SL, Mao M, Wang Y, Xi Y, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Predicted secondary structure of the srRNA gene in muscoid flies.Gene sequence from Delia mt genome. Inferred Watson–Crick bonds are illustrated bylines, GU bonds by dots. Roman numerals denote the conserved domain structure. The darker circles indicate the conserved sites among all six muscoid species while the lighter circles indicate the unconserved sites.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520480&req=5

pone.0134170.g003: Predicted secondary structure of the srRNA gene in muscoid flies.Gene sequence from Delia mt genome. Inferred Watson–Crick bonds are illustrated bylines, GU bonds by dots. Roman numerals denote the conserved domain structure. The darker circles indicate the conserved sites among all six muscoid species while the lighter circles indicate the unconserved sites.
Mentions: We inferred secondary structures of lrRNA and srRNA of muscoid flies using the published rRNA secondary structures of Drosophila yakuba (Diptera) [20], Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) [26], and Libelloides macaronius (Neuroptera) [27] as reference [54]. lrRNA has 49 helices in five structural domains (I-II, IV-VI, domain III is absent as in other Arthropoda), similar to other arthropods [60] (Fig 2). The secondary structures of srRNA in Muscoidea include three domains and 33 helices, similar to other Diptera [55] (Fig 3). Due to the high level of sequence conservation within the rRNA genes of muscoids, such variability as was present was mapped onto the secondary structure inferred for Delia (sites conserved in all 6 species marked in dark blue, variable sites uncoloured; Figs 2 and 3).

Bottom Line: Muscoidea is a significant dipteran clade that includes house flies (Family Muscidae), latrine flies (F.Anthomyiidae).The main divergence within the paraphyletic muscoidea grade was between Fanniidae + Muscidae and the lineage ((Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae) + (Calliphoridae + Sarcophagidae)) which occurred in the Late Eocene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Muscoidea is a significant dipteran clade that includes house flies (Family Muscidae), latrine flies (F. Fannidae), dung flies (F. Scathophagidae) and root maggot flies (F. Anthomyiidae). It is comprised of approximately 7000 described species. The monophyly of the Muscoidea and the precise relationships of muscoids to the closest superfamily the Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies etc) are both unresolved. Until now mitochondrial (mt) genomes were available for only two of the four muscoid families precluding a thorough test of phylogenetic relationships using this data source. Here we present the first two mt genomes for the families Fanniidae (Euryomma sp.) (family Fanniidae) and Anthomyiidae (Delia platura (Meigen, 1826)). We also conducted phylogenetic analyses containing of these newly sequenced mt genomes plus 15 other species representative of dipteran diversity to address the internal relationship of Muscoidea and its systematic position. Both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggested that Muscoidea was not a monophyletic group with the relationship: (Fanniidae + Muscidae) + ((Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae) + (Calliphoridae + Sarcophagidae)), supported by the majority of analysed datasets. This also infers that Oestroidea was paraphyletic in the majority of analyses. Divergence time estimation suggested that the earliest split within the Calyptratae, separating (Tachinidae + Oestridae) from the remaining families, occurred in the Early Eocene. The main divergence within the paraphyletic muscoidea grade was between Fanniidae + Muscidae and the lineage ((Anthomyiidae + Scathophagidae) + (Calliphoridae + Sarcophagidae)) which occurred in the Late Eocene.

No MeSH data available.