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On and Under the Skin: Emerging Basidiomycetous Yeast Infections Caused by Trichosporon Species.

Mariné M, Brown NA, Riaño-Pachón DM, Goldman GH - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Trichosporon species are basidiomycetous, yeast-like organisms capable of filamentous growth, i.e., dimorphic (Fig 1), that are distributed throughout nature... A comparison of these two Trichosporon genomes revealed >99% chromosomal and mitochondrial sequence identity... When compared to the genomes of other skin-associated or pathogenic basidiomycetes, the T. asahii genome is larger and is predicted to encode a greater number of genes than the basidiomycetes Malassezia restricta, M. globosa, and M. sympodialis, which range from 7.6 to 9.0 Mbp and are predicted to encode around 3,500 to 4,300 genes... The carryover of older names is common in clinical practice and can interfere in the correct diagnosis and treatment... In order to overcome this issue, fast and efficient molecular-based tools are being developed to effectively identify Trichosporon species in clinical settings... This is also a common trend for hematological patients, since high mortality rates, ranging from 42% to 76%, have been widely reported for Trichosporon infections... Apart from cancer and neutropenia, other underlying conditions, such as burns, surgery, and organ failure, were reported to be associated with invasive Trichosporon infections and a mortality rate as high as 87.5% in adult patients in Brazil... The echinocandins display minimal activity against basidiomycetes, and several cases of breakthrough infections caused by Trichosporon on patients undergoing echinocandin therapy have been reported... Only a single case has been reported of the successful treatment of peritonitis caused by T. inkin with caspofungin alone... Hence, this option is only used as a last resort, unless there is an important patient background that encourages its use... Concomitant or sequential usage of antifungal drugs has been reported for Trichosporon infections and generally yielded undistinguished results... This hydrolytic activity is a well-known trait that allows other basidiomycetous yeasts, such as Malassezia and Rhodotorula, to obtain fatty acids from host lipids and breakdown phospholipids present in cell membranes... In contrast to Trichosporon species, dermatophytes and Malassezia have undergone a severe loss of genes encoding for carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which indicates a high degree of adaptation to animal hosts... Accordingly, there are prominent differences in genome size and predicted encoding genes between Trichosporon spp. and Malassezia.

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Colony morphology of Trichosporon species.(A) T. asahii, T. asteroides, and T. inkii were grown at 30°C for 15 days on Sabouraud, YNB+tributyrin 1%, and YPD media, respectively. T. asteroides is releasing lipases, producing a halo where tributyrin is degraded. (B) T. asahii blastoconidia and pseudohypha. (C) T. asteroides arthroconidia and blastoconidia. (D) T. inkin pseudohypha, branched hypha, and blastoconidia. The blue fluorescence on the structures is due to their incubation with calcofluor white. Bars, 5 μm.
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ppat.1004982.g001: Colony morphology of Trichosporon species.(A) T. asahii, T. asteroides, and T. inkii were grown at 30°C for 15 days on Sabouraud, YNB+tributyrin 1%, and YPD media, respectively. T. asteroides is releasing lipases, producing a halo where tributyrin is degraded. (B) T. asahii blastoconidia and pseudohypha. (C) T. asteroides arthroconidia and blastoconidia. (D) T. inkin pseudohypha, branched hypha, and blastoconidia. The blue fluorescence on the structures is due to their incubation with calcofluor white. Bars, 5 μm.

Mentions: Trichosporon species are basidiomycetous, yeast-like organisms capable of filamentous growth, i.e., dimorphic (Fig 1), that are distributed throughout nature [1]. They are important from a biotechnological point of view as they are capable of decontaminating polluted environments by accumulating large amounts of oils [2–5]. A limited number of reports also show their presence in the human microbiome, such as Trichosporon asahii, which has been isolated from human fecal samples, the skin of healthy individuals, and patients with atopic dermatitis [1,6–10]. In addition, Trichosporon spp. can cause white piedra, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, superficial infections, and invasive trichosporonosis [11].


On and Under the Skin: Emerging Basidiomycetous Yeast Infections Caused by Trichosporon Species.

Mariné M, Brown NA, Riaño-Pachón DM, Goldman GH - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Colony morphology of Trichosporon species.(A) T. asahii, T. asteroides, and T. inkii were grown at 30°C for 15 days on Sabouraud, YNB+tributyrin 1%, and YPD media, respectively. T. asteroides is releasing lipases, producing a halo where tributyrin is degraded. (B) T. asahii blastoconidia and pseudohypha. (C) T. asteroides arthroconidia and blastoconidia. (D) T. inkin pseudohypha, branched hypha, and blastoconidia. The blue fluorescence on the structures is due to their incubation with calcofluor white. Bars, 5 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520462&req=5

ppat.1004982.g001: Colony morphology of Trichosporon species.(A) T. asahii, T. asteroides, and T. inkii were grown at 30°C for 15 days on Sabouraud, YNB+tributyrin 1%, and YPD media, respectively. T. asteroides is releasing lipases, producing a halo where tributyrin is degraded. (B) T. asahii blastoconidia and pseudohypha. (C) T. asteroides arthroconidia and blastoconidia. (D) T. inkin pseudohypha, branched hypha, and blastoconidia. The blue fluorescence on the structures is due to their incubation with calcofluor white. Bars, 5 μm.
Mentions: Trichosporon species are basidiomycetous, yeast-like organisms capable of filamentous growth, i.e., dimorphic (Fig 1), that are distributed throughout nature [1]. They are important from a biotechnological point of view as they are capable of decontaminating polluted environments by accumulating large amounts of oils [2–5]. A limited number of reports also show their presence in the human microbiome, such as Trichosporon asahii, which has been isolated from human fecal samples, the skin of healthy individuals, and patients with atopic dermatitis [1,6–10]. In addition, Trichosporon spp. can cause white piedra, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, superficial infections, and invasive trichosporonosis [11].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Trichosporon species are basidiomycetous, yeast-like organisms capable of filamentous growth, i.e., dimorphic (Fig 1), that are distributed throughout nature... A comparison of these two Trichosporon genomes revealed >99% chromosomal and mitochondrial sequence identity... When compared to the genomes of other skin-associated or pathogenic basidiomycetes, the T. asahii genome is larger and is predicted to encode a greater number of genes than the basidiomycetes Malassezia restricta, M. globosa, and M. sympodialis, which range from 7.6 to 9.0 Mbp and are predicted to encode around 3,500 to 4,300 genes... The carryover of older names is common in clinical practice and can interfere in the correct diagnosis and treatment... In order to overcome this issue, fast and efficient molecular-based tools are being developed to effectively identify Trichosporon species in clinical settings... This is also a common trend for hematological patients, since high mortality rates, ranging from 42% to 76%, have been widely reported for Trichosporon infections... Apart from cancer and neutropenia, other underlying conditions, such as burns, surgery, and organ failure, were reported to be associated with invasive Trichosporon infections and a mortality rate as high as 87.5% in adult patients in Brazil... The echinocandins display minimal activity against basidiomycetes, and several cases of breakthrough infections caused by Trichosporon on patients undergoing echinocandin therapy have been reported... Only a single case has been reported of the successful treatment of peritonitis caused by T. inkin with caspofungin alone... Hence, this option is only used as a last resort, unless there is an important patient background that encourages its use... Concomitant or sequential usage of antifungal drugs has been reported for Trichosporon infections and generally yielded undistinguished results... This hydrolytic activity is a well-known trait that allows other basidiomycetous yeasts, such as Malassezia and Rhodotorula, to obtain fatty acids from host lipids and breakdown phospholipids present in cell membranes... In contrast to Trichosporon species, dermatophytes and Malassezia have undergone a severe loss of genes encoding for carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which indicates a high degree of adaptation to animal hosts... Accordingly, there are prominent differences in genome size and predicted encoding genes between Trichosporon spp. and Malassezia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus