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Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda.

Schroeder LF, Elbireer A, Jackson JB, Amukele TK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011.The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests.Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda.

Methods: Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI). AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015.

Findings: Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46).

Interpretation: One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bar graph of tests offered in Kampala, ranked by Availability Index* and sub-categorized by laboratory affiliation.Bar graph depicting the contribution of different sectors in the laboratory market to availability of tests in Kampala, Uganda. Each number on the Y axis corresponds to a different test (see Fig 1 or S2 Table for identification of tests).
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pone.0134578.g002: Bar graph of tests offered in Kampala, ranked by Availability Index* and sub-categorized by laboratory affiliation.Bar graph depicting the contribution of different sectors in the laboratory market to availability of tests in Kampala, Uganda. Each number on the Y axis corresponds to a different test (see Fig 1 or S2 Table for identification of tests).

Mentions: The numbers in parentheses refer to position of the test in Figs 2 and 3. The Availability Index takes into account the size of the laboratories offering the test. See methods for the calculation.


Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda.

Schroeder LF, Elbireer A, Jackson JB, Amukele TK - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bar graph of tests offered in Kampala, ranked by Availability Index* and sub-categorized by laboratory affiliation.Bar graph depicting the contribution of different sectors in the laboratory market to availability of tests in Kampala, Uganda. Each number on the Y axis corresponds to a different test (see Fig 1 or S2 Table for identification of tests).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4520457&req=5

pone.0134578.g002: Bar graph of tests offered in Kampala, ranked by Availability Index* and sub-categorized by laboratory affiliation.Bar graph depicting the contribution of different sectors in the laboratory market to availability of tests in Kampala, Uganda. Each number on the Y axis corresponds to a different test (see Fig 1 or S2 Table for identification of tests).
Mentions: The numbers in parentheses refer to position of the test in Figs 2 and 3. The Availability Index takes into account the size of the laboratories offering the test. See methods for the calculation.

Bottom Line: One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011.The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests.Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda.

Methods: Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI). AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015.

Findings: Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46).

Interpretation: One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus