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Anti-Inflammatory Diet for Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease: Antioxidant Foods.

Saita E, Kondo K, Momiyama Y - Clin Med Insights Cardiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Antiatherosclerotic effects of n-3 PUFAs include reduced platelet aggregation, triglyceride-lowering effect, anti-inflammatory effect, and plaque stabilization, but the anti-inflammatory effect is principally responsible for preventing atherosclerosis.High consumption of isoflavone has been reported to be associated with a reduced risk of CAD and stroke only in women, but the preventative effect of soy products in the general population has not yet been clarified.Thus, many epidemiological studies report the promising effects of antioxidant foods, but there are many unclear points remaining with regard to the contribution of the nutritional elements found in antioxidant foods to the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Science for Human Life, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress plays a role in atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD), and much attention has been paid to antioxidant foods. The relationships between the consumption of vegetables and fruits and atherosclerotic diseases have been reported in many epidemiological studies showing a reduced risk of such diseases. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins C and E, green and yellow vegetables contain abundant quantities of carotenoids and polyphenols. The consumption of carotenoids and vitamins C and E has been shown to be inversely associated with CAD. However, supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamins C and E shows no beneficial effect, but rather mortality is increased with beta-carotene and vitamin E supplements. Therefore, it is recommended to consume vegetables and fruits, but vitamin supplementation is not recommended. Many epidemiological studies also report that higher consumption of fish, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is associated with a lower risk of CAD and stroke. Antiatherosclerotic effects of n-3 PUFAs include reduced platelet aggregation, triglyceride-lowering effect, anti-inflammatory effect, and plaque stabilization, but the anti-inflammatory effect is principally responsible for preventing atherosclerosis. It is recommended to consume fish at least twice a week in patients without CAD and to consider n-3 PUFA supplements in patients with documented CAD. Regarding soy products, soy protein consumption reduces low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Isoflavone, a polyphenol contained in soybeans, has antiatherosclerotic property because it has a structure similar to that of estrogen and bonds with estrogen receptors. High consumption of isoflavone has been reported to be associated with a reduced risk of CAD and stroke only in women, but the preventative effect of soy products in the general population has not yet been clarified. Thus, many epidemiological studies report the promising effects of antioxidant foods, but there are many unclear points remaining with regard to the contribution of the nutritional elements found in antioxidant foods to the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dietary fat in Eskimo and Greenland divided by fat types and mortality from heart disease. Adapted from Bang and Dyerberg J et al.13,14
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f1-cmc-suppl.3-2014-061: Dietary fat in Eskimo and Greenland divided by fat types and mortality from heart disease. Adapted from Bang and Dyerberg J et al.13,14

Mentions: Epidemiological studies implemented in the 1970s13,14 demonstrated an extremely low incidence of CAD among the indigenous people of Greenland, Eskimos, who consume mainly fish and seals rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (Fig. 1). As a result, the importance of n-3 PUFAs, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), came to be noted. EPA is found in high concentrations in fish oil of sardines, along with DHA in tuna and bonito. Many epidemiological studies demonstrated higher fish consumption to be associated with a lower risk of CAD and stroke.15–17 Among Japanese populations, along with the association between high consumption of fish and low mortality due to CAD, Iso et al.17 reported an inverse association between fish consumption and risk of CAD. Moreover, in a rural district of Japan, the incidence of CAD was shown to be lower in fishing areas than in the mercantile and farming areas.18


Anti-Inflammatory Diet for Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease: Antioxidant Foods.

Saita E, Kondo K, Momiyama Y - Clin Med Insights Cardiol (2015)

Dietary fat in Eskimo and Greenland divided by fat types and mortality from heart disease. Adapted from Bang and Dyerberg J et al.13,14
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519361&req=5

f1-cmc-suppl.3-2014-061: Dietary fat in Eskimo and Greenland divided by fat types and mortality from heart disease. Adapted from Bang and Dyerberg J et al.13,14
Mentions: Epidemiological studies implemented in the 1970s13,14 demonstrated an extremely low incidence of CAD among the indigenous people of Greenland, Eskimos, who consume mainly fish and seals rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (Fig. 1). As a result, the importance of n-3 PUFAs, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), came to be noted. EPA is found in high concentrations in fish oil of sardines, along with DHA in tuna and bonito. Many epidemiological studies demonstrated higher fish consumption to be associated with a lower risk of CAD and stroke.15–17 Among Japanese populations, along with the association between high consumption of fish and low mortality due to CAD, Iso et al.17 reported an inverse association between fish consumption and risk of CAD. Moreover, in a rural district of Japan, the incidence of CAD was shown to be lower in fishing areas than in the mercantile and farming areas.18

Bottom Line: Antiatherosclerotic effects of n-3 PUFAs include reduced platelet aggregation, triglyceride-lowering effect, anti-inflammatory effect, and plaque stabilization, but the anti-inflammatory effect is principally responsible for preventing atherosclerosis.High consumption of isoflavone has been reported to be associated with a reduced risk of CAD and stroke only in women, but the preventative effect of soy products in the general population has not yet been clarified.Thus, many epidemiological studies report the promising effects of antioxidant foods, but there are many unclear points remaining with regard to the contribution of the nutritional elements found in antioxidant foods to the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Science for Human Life, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress plays a role in atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD), and much attention has been paid to antioxidant foods. The relationships between the consumption of vegetables and fruits and atherosclerotic diseases have been reported in many epidemiological studies showing a reduced risk of such diseases. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins C and E, green and yellow vegetables contain abundant quantities of carotenoids and polyphenols. The consumption of carotenoids and vitamins C and E has been shown to be inversely associated with CAD. However, supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamins C and E shows no beneficial effect, but rather mortality is increased with beta-carotene and vitamin E supplements. Therefore, it is recommended to consume vegetables and fruits, but vitamin supplementation is not recommended. Many epidemiological studies also report that higher consumption of fish, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is associated with a lower risk of CAD and stroke. Antiatherosclerotic effects of n-3 PUFAs include reduced platelet aggregation, triglyceride-lowering effect, anti-inflammatory effect, and plaque stabilization, but the anti-inflammatory effect is principally responsible for preventing atherosclerosis. It is recommended to consume fish at least twice a week in patients without CAD and to consider n-3 PUFA supplements in patients with documented CAD. Regarding soy products, soy protein consumption reduces low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Isoflavone, a polyphenol contained in soybeans, has antiatherosclerotic property because it has a structure similar to that of estrogen and bonds with estrogen receptors. High consumption of isoflavone has been reported to be associated with a reduced risk of CAD and stroke only in women, but the preventative effect of soy products in the general population has not yet been clarified. Thus, many epidemiological studies report the promising effects of antioxidant foods, but there are many unclear points remaining with regard to the contribution of the nutritional elements found in antioxidant foods to the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus