Limits...
Oxidative Stress and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Flatfish Larvae in a Changing Ocean.

Pimentel MS, Faleiro F, Diniz M, Machado J, Pousão-Ferreira P, Peck MA, Pörtner HO, Rosa R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Hypercapnic conditions led to a decrease in the activity of digestive enzymes, both pancreatic (up to 26.1 % for trypsin and 74.5 % for amylase) and intestinal enzymes (up to 36.1 % for alkaline phosphatase) in post-metamorphic larvae.Moreover, the impact of ocean acidification and warming on some of these physiological and biochemical variables (namely, lower OCR and higher HSP and MDA levels) were translated into larvae performance, being significantly correlated with decreased larval growth and survival or increased incidence of skeletal deformities.The increased vulnerability of flatfish early life stages under future ocean conditions is expected to potentially determine recruitment and population dynamics in marine ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374, Cascais, Portugal; Instituto Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003, Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Until now, it is not known how the antioxidant and digestive enzymatic machinery of fish early life stages will change with the combined effects of future ocean acidification and warming. Here we show that high pCO2 (~1600 μatm) significantly decreased metabolic rates (up to 27.4 %) of flatfish larvae, Solea senegalensis, at both present (18 °C) and warmer temperatures (+4 °C). Moreover, both warming and hypercapnia increased the heat shock response and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), mainly in post-metamorphic larvae (30 dph). The lack of changes in the activity of CAT and GST of pre-metamorphic larvae (10 dph) seems to indicate that earlier stages lack a fully-developed antioxidant defense system. Nevertheless, the heat shock and antioxidant responses of post-metamorphic larvae were not enough to avoid the peroxidative damage, which was greatly increased under future environmental conditions. Digestive enzymatic activity of S. senegalensis larvae was also affected by future predictions. Hypercapnic conditions led to a decrease in the activity of digestive enzymes, both pancreatic (up to 26.1 % for trypsin and 74.5 % for amylase) and intestinal enzymes (up to 36.1 % for alkaline phosphatase) in post-metamorphic larvae. Moreover, the impact of ocean acidification and warming on some of these physiological and biochemical variables (namely, lower OCR and higher HSP and MDA levels) were translated into larvae performance, being significantly correlated with decreased larval growth and survival or increased incidence of skeletal deformities. The increased vulnerability of flatfish early life stages under future ocean conditions is expected to potentially determine recruitment and population dynamics in marine ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Impact of ocean acidification and warming on the alkaline phosphatase activity of Solea senegalensis larvae.Enzyme activity in A) 10 dph, B) 20 dph, and C) 30 dph larvae at different temperature and pH conditions. Values are given in mean + SD. Different letters represent significant differences between the different climate scenarios (p<0.05). Lower-case letters indicate differences between treatments at the same development stage; capital letters represent differences between 10, 20 and 30 dph larvae for the same treatment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519323&req=5

pone.0134082.g005: Impact of ocean acidification and warming on the alkaline phosphatase activity of Solea senegalensis larvae.Enzyme activity in A) 10 dph, B) 20 dph, and C) 30 dph larvae at different temperature and pH conditions. Values are given in mean + SD. Different letters represent significant differences between the different climate scenarios (p<0.05). Lower-case letters indicate differences between treatments at the same development stage; capital letters represent differences between 10, 20 and 30 dph larvae for the same treatment.

Mentions: The effect of warming and high pCO2 on digestive enzymes of sole larvae is presented in Figs 3–5 (see also S2 Table). Both extracellular enzymes (trypsin and amylase) increased throughout development, while the brush border enzyme ALP significantly increased.


Oxidative Stress and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Flatfish Larvae in a Changing Ocean.

Pimentel MS, Faleiro F, Diniz M, Machado J, Pousão-Ferreira P, Peck MA, Pörtner HO, Rosa R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Impact of ocean acidification and warming on the alkaline phosphatase activity of Solea senegalensis larvae.Enzyme activity in A) 10 dph, B) 20 dph, and C) 30 dph larvae at different temperature and pH conditions. Values are given in mean + SD. Different letters represent significant differences between the different climate scenarios (p<0.05). Lower-case letters indicate differences between treatments at the same development stage; capital letters represent differences between 10, 20 and 30 dph larvae for the same treatment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519323&req=5

pone.0134082.g005: Impact of ocean acidification and warming on the alkaline phosphatase activity of Solea senegalensis larvae.Enzyme activity in A) 10 dph, B) 20 dph, and C) 30 dph larvae at different temperature and pH conditions. Values are given in mean + SD. Different letters represent significant differences between the different climate scenarios (p<0.05). Lower-case letters indicate differences between treatments at the same development stage; capital letters represent differences between 10, 20 and 30 dph larvae for the same treatment.
Mentions: The effect of warming and high pCO2 on digestive enzymes of sole larvae is presented in Figs 3–5 (see also S2 Table). Both extracellular enzymes (trypsin and amylase) increased throughout development, while the brush border enzyme ALP significantly increased.

Bottom Line: Hypercapnic conditions led to a decrease in the activity of digestive enzymes, both pancreatic (up to 26.1 % for trypsin and 74.5 % for amylase) and intestinal enzymes (up to 36.1 % for alkaline phosphatase) in post-metamorphic larvae.Moreover, the impact of ocean acidification and warming on some of these physiological and biochemical variables (namely, lower OCR and higher HSP and MDA levels) were translated into larvae performance, being significantly correlated with decreased larval growth and survival or increased incidence of skeletal deformities.The increased vulnerability of flatfish early life stages under future ocean conditions is expected to potentially determine recruitment and population dynamics in marine ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374, Cascais, Portugal; Instituto Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003, Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Until now, it is not known how the antioxidant and digestive enzymatic machinery of fish early life stages will change with the combined effects of future ocean acidification and warming. Here we show that high pCO2 (~1600 μatm) significantly decreased metabolic rates (up to 27.4 %) of flatfish larvae, Solea senegalensis, at both present (18 °C) and warmer temperatures (+4 °C). Moreover, both warming and hypercapnia increased the heat shock response and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), mainly in post-metamorphic larvae (30 dph). The lack of changes in the activity of CAT and GST of pre-metamorphic larvae (10 dph) seems to indicate that earlier stages lack a fully-developed antioxidant defense system. Nevertheless, the heat shock and antioxidant responses of post-metamorphic larvae were not enough to avoid the peroxidative damage, which was greatly increased under future environmental conditions. Digestive enzymatic activity of S. senegalensis larvae was also affected by future predictions. Hypercapnic conditions led to a decrease in the activity of digestive enzymes, both pancreatic (up to 26.1 % for trypsin and 74.5 % for amylase) and intestinal enzymes (up to 36.1 % for alkaline phosphatase) in post-metamorphic larvae. Moreover, the impact of ocean acidification and warming on some of these physiological and biochemical variables (namely, lower OCR and higher HSP and MDA levels) were translated into larvae performance, being significantly correlated with decreased larval growth and survival or increased incidence of skeletal deformities. The increased vulnerability of flatfish early life stages under future ocean conditions is expected to potentially determine recruitment and population dynamics in marine ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus