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Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration.

Zhu W, Castro NJ, Cheng X, Keidar M, Zhang LG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties.More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production).By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive electrospun cartilage substitute by integrating cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment with sustained growth factor delivery microspheres. Specifically, CAP was applied to a poly(ε-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold with homogeneously distributed bioactive factors (transforming growth factor-β1 and bovine serum albumin) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres. We have shown that CAP treatment renders electrospun scaffolds more hydrophilic thus facilitating vitronectin adsorption. More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production). Furthermore, CAP can substantially enhance 3D cell infiltration (over two-fold increase in infiltration depth after 1 day of culture) in the scaffolds. By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SEM analysis of various scaffolds.Low- and high-magnification of SEM images of (A, a) unmodified control scaffold without microspheres, (B, b) unmodified scaffold with microspheres, (C, c) CAP-modified scaffolds with 1 min, (D, d) 3 min and (E, e) 5 min treatment time.
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pone.0134729.g002: SEM analysis of various scaffolds.Low- and high-magnification of SEM images of (A, a) unmodified control scaffold without microspheres, (B, b) unmodified scaffold with microspheres, (C, c) CAP-modified scaffolds with 1 min, (D, d) 3 min and (E, e) 5 min treatment time.

Mentions: The SEM images of test samples were shown in Fig 2. Following optimized electrospinning conditions as described in our previous studies [24], electrospun fibers were successfully fabricated without beading. The fibers exhibited random orientation with uniform fiber size and interconnected pores. Homogenous microsphere distribution upon the scaffolds can be observed (Fig 2B and 2b). In addition, CAP treatment did not alter the scaffold surface morphology after 1 min (Fig 2C and 2c) and 3 min (Fig 2D and 2d) of exposure, respectively. However, 5 min CAP exposure led to scaffold degradation resulting in the fiber aggregation (Fig 2E and 2e), which indicates prolonged CAP exposure can alter scaffold surface and gross morphology.


Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration.

Zhu W, Castro NJ, Cheng X, Keidar M, Zhang LG - PLoS ONE (2015)

SEM analysis of various scaffolds.Low- and high-magnification of SEM images of (A, a) unmodified control scaffold without microspheres, (B, b) unmodified scaffold with microspheres, (C, c) CAP-modified scaffolds with 1 min, (D, d) 3 min and (E, e) 5 min treatment time.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519315&req=5

pone.0134729.g002: SEM analysis of various scaffolds.Low- and high-magnification of SEM images of (A, a) unmodified control scaffold without microspheres, (B, b) unmodified scaffold with microspheres, (C, c) CAP-modified scaffolds with 1 min, (D, d) 3 min and (E, e) 5 min treatment time.
Mentions: The SEM images of test samples were shown in Fig 2. Following optimized electrospinning conditions as described in our previous studies [24], electrospun fibers were successfully fabricated without beading. The fibers exhibited random orientation with uniform fiber size and interconnected pores. Homogenous microsphere distribution upon the scaffolds can be observed (Fig 2B and 2b). In addition, CAP treatment did not alter the scaffold surface morphology after 1 min (Fig 2C and 2c) and 3 min (Fig 2D and 2d) of exposure, respectively. However, 5 min CAP exposure led to scaffold degradation resulting in the fiber aggregation (Fig 2E and 2e), which indicates prolonged CAP exposure can alter scaffold surface and gross morphology.

Bottom Line: However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties.More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production).By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive electrospun cartilage substitute by integrating cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment with sustained growth factor delivery microspheres. Specifically, CAP was applied to a poly(ε-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold with homogeneously distributed bioactive factors (transforming growth factor-β1 and bovine serum albumin) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres. We have shown that CAP treatment renders electrospun scaffolds more hydrophilic thus facilitating vitronectin adsorption. More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production). Furthermore, CAP can substantially enhance 3D cell infiltration (over two-fold increase in infiltration depth after 1 day of culture) in the scaffolds. By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus