Limits...
Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

Stalder K, Vaz PK, Gilkerson JR, Baker R, Whiteley P, Ficorilli N, Tatarczuch L, Portas T, Skogvold K, Anderson GA, Devlin JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos.The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8).Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Australian Wildlife Health Centre, Healesville Sanctuary, Healesville, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Predicted amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of the novel marsupial herpesviruses.A: Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the novel marsupial herpesviruses, along with other herpesviruses from the three herpesvirus sub-families. B: Maximum likelihood tree generated from the alignment. Bootstrap values of 100 replicates are displayed on the tree branches. Novel herpesvirus species are underlined. Key: PaHV-2 = papiine herpesvirus 2 (AAN87165.1); SaHV-1 = saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (YP_003933809.1); HHV-1 = human herpesvirus 1 (NP_044632.1); MaHV-1 = macropodid herpesvirus 1 ([22]); VoHV-3 = vombatid herpesvirus 3 (novel sequence); PCMV = porcine cytomegalovirus (AF268042.1); HHV-6 = human herpesvirus 6A (NP_042931.1); HHV-4 = human herpesvirus 4 (YP_401712.1); HHV-8 = human herpesvirus 8 (ACY00400.1); SaHV-2 = saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (NP_040211.1); BHV-4 = bovine herpesvirus 4 (NP_076501.1); DaHV-1 = dasyurid herpesvirus 1 [13]; DaHV-2 = dasyurid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); MaHV-3 = macropodid herpesvirus 3 (ABO61861.1); MaHV-5 = macropodid herpesvirus 5 (novel sequence). PeHV-1 = peramelid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); PotHV-1 = potoroid herpesvirus 1 [10]; VoHV-1 = vombatid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); VoHV-2 = vombatid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); PhaHV-1 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 1 (AEX15649.1); PhaHV-2 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 2 (AFN66528.1); EHV-2 = equine herpesvirus 2 (NP_042605.1); CpHV-2 = caprine herpesvirus 2 (ADV92276.1).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519311&req=5

pone.0133807.g001: Predicted amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of the novel marsupial herpesviruses.A: Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the novel marsupial herpesviruses, along with other herpesviruses from the three herpesvirus sub-families. B: Maximum likelihood tree generated from the alignment. Bootstrap values of 100 replicates are displayed on the tree branches. Novel herpesvirus species are underlined. Key: PaHV-2 = papiine herpesvirus 2 (AAN87165.1); SaHV-1 = saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (YP_003933809.1); HHV-1 = human herpesvirus 1 (NP_044632.1); MaHV-1 = macropodid herpesvirus 1 ([22]); VoHV-3 = vombatid herpesvirus 3 (novel sequence); PCMV = porcine cytomegalovirus (AF268042.1); HHV-6 = human herpesvirus 6A (NP_042931.1); HHV-4 = human herpesvirus 4 (YP_401712.1); HHV-8 = human herpesvirus 8 (ACY00400.1); SaHV-2 = saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (NP_040211.1); BHV-4 = bovine herpesvirus 4 (NP_076501.1); DaHV-1 = dasyurid herpesvirus 1 [13]; DaHV-2 = dasyurid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); MaHV-3 = macropodid herpesvirus 3 (ABO61861.1); MaHV-5 = macropodid herpesvirus 5 (novel sequence). PeHV-1 = peramelid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); PotHV-1 = potoroid herpesvirus 1 [10]; VoHV-1 = vombatid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); VoHV-2 = vombatid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); PhaHV-1 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 1 (AEX15649.1); PhaHV-2 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 2 (AFN66528.1); EHV-2 = equine herpesvirus 2 (NP_042605.1); CpHV-2 = caprine herpesvirus 2 (ADV92276.1).

Mentions: The prevalence of herpesvirus DNA detection by PCR in the marsupial species evaluated ranged from 0.0–45.5%, with an overall prevalence of 27.2% (Table 1). Nucleotide sequence analyses and comparison with sequences in the GenBank database identified six novel herpesviruses; three in wombats, one in swamp wallabies, one in Tasmanian devils and one in a southern brown bandicoot. Using current herpesvirus nomenclature these novel herpesviruses were putatively designated Vombatid herpesvirus 1–3 (VoHV1-3), Macropodid herpesvirus 5 (MaHV-5), Dasyurid herpesvirus 2 (DaHV-2) and Peramelid herpesvirus 1 (PeHV-1), respectively. Five of the six novel viruses were gammaherpesviruses, with one alphaherpesvirus (VoHV-3) detected in wombats. Sequence data and phylogenetic analysis for the novel herpesvirus species are presented in Fig 1.


Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

Stalder K, Vaz PK, Gilkerson JR, Baker R, Whiteley P, Ficorilli N, Tatarczuch L, Portas T, Skogvold K, Anderson GA, Devlin JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Predicted amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of the novel marsupial herpesviruses.A: Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the novel marsupial herpesviruses, along with other herpesviruses from the three herpesvirus sub-families. B: Maximum likelihood tree generated from the alignment. Bootstrap values of 100 replicates are displayed on the tree branches. Novel herpesvirus species are underlined. Key: PaHV-2 = papiine herpesvirus 2 (AAN87165.1); SaHV-1 = saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (YP_003933809.1); HHV-1 = human herpesvirus 1 (NP_044632.1); MaHV-1 = macropodid herpesvirus 1 ([22]); VoHV-3 = vombatid herpesvirus 3 (novel sequence); PCMV = porcine cytomegalovirus (AF268042.1); HHV-6 = human herpesvirus 6A (NP_042931.1); HHV-4 = human herpesvirus 4 (YP_401712.1); HHV-8 = human herpesvirus 8 (ACY00400.1); SaHV-2 = saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (NP_040211.1); BHV-4 = bovine herpesvirus 4 (NP_076501.1); DaHV-1 = dasyurid herpesvirus 1 [13]; DaHV-2 = dasyurid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); MaHV-3 = macropodid herpesvirus 3 (ABO61861.1); MaHV-5 = macropodid herpesvirus 5 (novel sequence). PeHV-1 = peramelid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); PotHV-1 = potoroid herpesvirus 1 [10]; VoHV-1 = vombatid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); VoHV-2 = vombatid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); PhaHV-1 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 1 (AEX15649.1); PhaHV-2 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 2 (AFN66528.1); EHV-2 = equine herpesvirus 2 (NP_042605.1); CpHV-2 = caprine herpesvirus 2 (ADV92276.1).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519311&req=5

pone.0133807.g001: Predicted amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of the novel marsupial herpesviruses.A: Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the novel marsupial herpesviruses, along with other herpesviruses from the three herpesvirus sub-families. B: Maximum likelihood tree generated from the alignment. Bootstrap values of 100 replicates are displayed on the tree branches. Novel herpesvirus species are underlined. Key: PaHV-2 = papiine herpesvirus 2 (AAN87165.1); SaHV-1 = saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (YP_003933809.1); HHV-1 = human herpesvirus 1 (NP_044632.1); MaHV-1 = macropodid herpesvirus 1 ([22]); VoHV-3 = vombatid herpesvirus 3 (novel sequence); PCMV = porcine cytomegalovirus (AF268042.1); HHV-6 = human herpesvirus 6A (NP_042931.1); HHV-4 = human herpesvirus 4 (YP_401712.1); HHV-8 = human herpesvirus 8 (ACY00400.1); SaHV-2 = saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (NP_040211.1); BHV-4 = bovine herpesvirus 4 (NP_076501.1); DaHV-1 = dasyurid herpesvirus 1 [13]; DaHV-2 = dasyurid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); MaHV-3 = macropodid herpesvirus 3 (ABO61861.1); MaHV-5 = macropodid herpesvirus 5 (novel sequence). PeHV-1 = peramelid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); PotHV-1 = potoroid herpesvirus 1 [10]; VoHV-1 = vombatid herpesvirus 1 (novel sequence); VoHV-2 = vombatid herpesvirus 2 (novel sequence); PhaHV-1 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 1 (AEX15649.1); PhaHV-2 = phascolarctid herpesvirus 2 (AFN66528.1); EHV-2 = equine herpesvirus 2 (NP_042605.1); CpHV-2 = caprine herpesvirus 2 (ADV92276.1).
Mentions: The prevalence of herpesvirus DNA detection by PCR in the marsupial species evaluated ranged from 0.0–45.5%, with an overall prevalence of 27.2% (Table 1). Nucleotide sequence analyses and comparison with sequences in the GenBank database identified six novel herpesviruses; three in wombats, one in swamp wallabies, one in Tasmanian devils and one in a southern brown bandicoot. Using current herpesvirus nomenclature these novel herpesviruses were putatively designated Vombatid herpesvirus 1–3 (VoHV1-3), Macropodid herpesvirus 5 (MaHV-5), Dasyurid herpesvirus 2 (DaHV-2) and Peramelid herpesvirus 1 (PeHV-1), respectively. Five of the six novel viruses were gammaherpesviruses, with one alphaherpesvirus (VoHV-3) detected in wombats. Sequence data and phylogenetic analysis for the novel herpesvirus species are presented in Fig 1.

Bottom Line: This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos.The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8).Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Australian Wildlife Health Centre, Healesville Sanctuary, Healesville, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus