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Motor Sequence Learning and Consolidation in Unilateral De Novo Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Dan X, King BR, Doyon J, Chan P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: LH-S patients demonstrated impaired learning during the initial training session and both LH-S and LH-A patients demonstrated decreased performance compared to controls during the next-day retest.Critically, the impairments in later learning stages in the LH-A patients were evident even before the appearance of traditional clinical symptoms in the tested hand.Results may be explained by the progression of disease-related alterations in relevant corticostriatal networks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology and Neurology, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Neurodegenerative Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory on Parkinson's Disease, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Previous research investigating motor sequence learning (MSL) and consolidation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has predominantly included heterogeneous participant samples with early and advanced disease stages; thus, little is known about the onset of potential behavioral impairments. We employed a multisession MSL paradigm to investigate whether behavioral deficits in learning and consolidation appear immediately after or prior to the detection of clinical symptoms in the tested (left) hand. Specifically, our patient sample was limited to recently diagnosed patients with pure unilateral PD. The left hand symptomatic (LH-S) patients provided an assessment of performance following the onset of clinical symptoms in the tested hand. Conversely, right hand affected (left hand asymptomatic, LH-A) patients served to investigate whether MSL impairments appear before symptoms in the tested hand. LH-S patients demonstrated impaired learning during the initial training session and both LH-S and LH-A patients demonstrated decreased performance compared to controls during the next-day retest. Critically, the impairments in later learning stages in the LH-A patients were evident even before the appearance of traditional clinical symptoms in the tested hand. Results may be explained by the progression of disease-related alterations in relevant corticostriatal networks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental Design.See text for details of each phase. W/U = warm-up.
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pone.0134291.g001: Experimental Design.See text for details of each phase. W/U = warm-up.

Mentions: The two sessions of finger sequence learning were identical (Fig 1). Participants were seated comfortably in a height-adjustable chair in front of a computer monitor. The left hand of the participants was positioned on a four-button response box located left of the participants’ midlines. In order to afford subjects a brief warm-up period and adaptation to the response box prior to initiating the sequence task, participants simultaneously pressed all four buttons on the response pad with the four fingers of the left hand as fast as possible (Fig 1: Warm-up; W/U). Participants were instructed to start once the fixation cross shown on a computer monitor turned green and to continue until it changed to red. Unbeknownst to the participants, the cross remained green until the participants completed 60 presses (i.e., simultaneous flexion of the four fingers). Next, participants completed an adapted version of the motor sequence finger tapping task [1] employed extensively in previous research [5,9]. Briefly, participants were instructed to use the fingers of their left hand and the corresponding buttons of the response box to perform an explicitly known sequence of finger presses: 4-1-3-2-4, where 4 and 1 correspond to the little and index fingers, respectively. To verify that participants memorized the appropriate sequence of finger movements, they were asked to complete three consecutive sequences slowly and without errors prior to the training session (Fig 1: Verification). Next, participants completed the training portion by performing the sequence as fast and as accurately as possible while the green cross was displayed on the computer monitor (Fig 1: MSL). Participants were instructed to return to the beginning of the sequence if they realized an error was made. The MSL task contained 14 blocks, with each block consisting of 60 key presses (ideally corresponding to 12 correct sequences). In between blocks, a red cross was displayed on the monitor for a duration of 25 seconds during which participants were instructed to rest their hand.


Motor Sequence Learning and Consolidation in Unilateral De Novo Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Dan X, King BR, Doyon J, Chan P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Experimental Design.See text for details of each phase. W/U = warm-up.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519305&req=5

pone.0134291.g001: Experimental Design.See text for details of each phase. W/U = warm-up.
Mentions: The two sessions of finger sequence learning were identical (Fig 1). Participants were seated comfortably in a height-adjustable chair in front of a computer monitor. The left hand of the participants was positioned on a four-button response box located left of the participants’ midlines. In order to afford subjects a brief warm-up period and adaptation to the response box prior to initiating the sequence task, participants simultaneously pressed all four buttons on the response pad with the four fingers of the left hand as fast as possible (Fig 1: Warm-up; W/U). Participants were instructed to start once the fixation cross shown on a computer monitor turned green and to continue until it changed to red. Unbeknownst to the participants, the cross remained green until the participants completed 60 presses (i.e., simultaneous flexion of the four fingers). Next, participants completed an adapted version of the motor sequence finger tapping task [1] employed extensively in previous research [5,9]. Briefly, participants were instructed to use the fingers of their left hand and the corresponding buttons of the response box to perform an explicitly known sequence of finger presses: 4-1-3-2-4, where 4 and 1 correspond to the little and index fingers, respectively. To verify that participants memorized the appropriate sequence of finger movements, they were asked to complete three consecutive sequences slowly and without errors prior to the training session (Fig 1: Verification). Next, participants completed the training portion by performing the sequence as fast and as accurately as possible while the green cross was displayed on the computer monitor (Fig 1: MSL). Participants were instructed to return to the beginning of the sequence if they realized an error was made. The MSL task contained 14 blocks, with each block consisting of 60 key presses (ideally corresponding to 12 correct sequences). In between blocks, a red cross was displayed on the monitor for a duration of 25 seconds during which participants were instructed to rest their hand.

Bottom Line: LH-S patients demonstrated impaired learning during the initial training session and both LH-S and LH-A patients demonstrated decreased performance compared to controls during the next-day retest.Critically, the impairments in later learning stages in the LH-A patients were evident even before the appearance of traditional clinical symptoms in the tested hand.Results may be explained by the progression of disease-related alterations in relevant corticostriatal networks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology and Neurology, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Neurodegenerative Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory on Parkinson's Disease, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Previous research investigating motor sequence learning (MSL) and consolidation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has predominantly included heterogeneous participant samples with early and advanced disease stages; thus, little is known about the onset of potential behavioral impairments. We employed a multisession MSL paradigm to investigate whether behavioral deficits in learning and consolidation appear immediately after or prior to the detection of clinical symptoms in the tested (left) hand. Specifically, our patient sample was limited to recently diagnosed patients with pure unilateral PD. The left hand symptomatic (LH-S) patients provided an assessment of performance following the onset of clinical symptoms in the tested hand. Conversely, right hand affected (left hand asymptomatic, LH-A) patients served to investigate whether MSL impairments appear before symptoms in the tested hand. LH-S patients demonstrated impaired learning during the initial training session and both LH-S and LH-A patients demonstrated decreased performance compared to controls during the next-day retest. Critically, the impairments in later learning stages in the LH-A patients were evident even before the appearance of traditional clinical symptoms in the tested hand. Results may be explained by the progression of disease-related alterations in relevant corticostriatal networks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus