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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Connection diagram of the cervical muscles as identified in T. f. pratincola from lateral view.The head is represented as a rectangle and the fourteen cervical vertebrae and the first two thoracic vertebrae are represented as squares. The cervical vertebrae are numbered, and the consecutive numbers of the same region as defined by Krings et al. (2014) [5] are represented by the alternating use of bold and italic numbers. Osteological regions were defined as follows; region 1: C1, region 2: C2-C4, region 3: C5-C7, region 4: C8-C9, region 5: C10-C12 and region 6: C13-C14 [5]. The thoracic vertebrae were excluded from the regionalization [5]. Fleshy parts are indicated with solid lines; broken lines represent tendinous or aponeurotic parts. The heavy lines above C14, T1 and T2 represents the aponeurosis notarii. Colours are given for clarity and represent the individual muscles as listed below. Dorsally originating muscles: M. complexus (red), M. biventer cervicis (black), M. splenius capitis (purple), M. rectus capitis dorsalis (blue), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (pink), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (yellow), pars profunda (green), M. interspinalis (orange). Ventrally originating muscles: M. rectus capitis lateralis (yellow), M. rectus capitis ventralis (red), M. longus colli ventralis (black). Note that this figure represents an overview of the relative muscle positions. This figure does not represent precise attachment sites. These were already provided in Figs 1–12.
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pone.0134272.g013: Connection diagram of the cervical muscles as identified in T. f. pratincola from lateral view.The head is represented as a rectangle and the fourteen cervical vertebrae and the first two thoracic vertebrae are represented as squares. The cervical vertebrae are numbered, and the consecutive numbers of the same region as defined by Krings et al. (2014) [5] are represented by the alternating use of bold and italic numbers. Osteological regions were defined as follows; region 1: C1, region 2: C2-C4, region 3: C5-C7, region 4: C8-C9, region 5: C10-C12 and region 6: C13-C14 [5]. The thoracic vertebrae were excluded from the regionalization [5]. Fleshy parts are indicated with solid lines; broken lines represent tendinous or aponeurotic parts. The heavy lines above C14, T1 and T2 represents the aponeurosis notarii. Colours are given for clarity and represent the individual muscles as listed below. Dorsally originating muscles: M. complexus (red), M. biventer cervicis (black), M. splenius capitis (purple), M. rectus capitis dorsalis (blue), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (pink), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (yellow), pars profunda (green), M. interspinalis (orange). Ventrally originating muscles: M. rectus capitis lateralis (yellow), M. rectus capitis ventralis (red), M. longus colli ventralis (black). Note that this figure represents an overview of the relative muscle positions. This figure does not represent precise attachment sites. These were already provided in Figs 1–12.

Mentions: As a summary all muscles identified in T. f. pratincola are illustrated in a connection diagram (Fig 13) with the indicated osteological regions [5]. In addition, the identified muscles are illustrated in an S-shaped neck in Fig 14, which makes it easier to interpret the muscle function. Fig 14 also includes the data of regionalization [5]. All muscles of the Mm. craniocervicales reported in literature [6] were identified, and this gives us a complete view how the head may interact with the trunk by muscular contraction. With the description of the M. longus colli dorsalis the major part of the Mm. cervicales dorsales is described. Though some slips of the Mm. cervicales ventrales were described here, this subsystem shows more complexity than described here due to deeper located muscles. The Mm. cervicales laterales were not selected for this study, because they serially repeat, and are complex and deep.


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Connection diagram of the cervical muscles as identified in T. f. pratincola from lateral view.The head is represented as a rectangle and the fourteen cervical vertebrae and the first two thoracic vertebrae are represented as squares. The cervical vertebrae are numbered, and the consecutive numbers of the same region as defined by Krings et al. (2014) [5] are represented by the alternating use of bold and italic numbers. Osteological regions were defined as follows; region 1: C1, region 2: C2-C4, region 3: C5-C7, region 4: C8-C9, region 5: C10-C12 and region 6: C13-C14 [5]. The thoracic vertebrae were excluded from the regionalization [5]. Fleshy parts are indicated with solid lines; broken lines represent tendinous or aponeurotic parts. The heavy lines above C14, T1 and T2 represents the aponeurosis notarii. Colours are given for clarity and represent the individual muscles as listed below. Dorsally originating muscles: M. complexus (red), M. biventer cervicis (black), M. splenius capitis (purple), M. rectus capitis dorsalis (blue), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (pink), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (yellow), pars profunda (green), M. interspinalis (orange). Ventrally originating muscles: M. rectus capitis lateralis (yellow), M. rectus capitis ventralis (red), M. longus colli ventralis (black). Note that this figure represents an overview of the relative muscle positions. This figure does not represent precise attachment sites. These were already provided in Figs 1–12.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g013: Connection diagram of the cervical muscles as identified in T. f. pratincola from lateral view.The head is represented as a rectangle and the fourteen cervical vertebrae and the first two thoracic vertebrae are represented as squares. The cervical vertebrae are numbered, and the consecutive numbers of the same region as defined by Krings et al. (2014) [5] are represented by the alternating use of bold and italic numbers. Osteological regions were defined as follows; region 1: C1, region 2: C2-C4, region 3: C5-C7, region 4: C8-C9, region 5: C10-C12 and region 6: C13-C14 [5]. The thoracic vertebrae were excluded from the regionalization [5]. Fleshy parts are indicated with solid lines; broken lines represent tendinous or aponeurotic parts. The heavy lines above C14, T1 and T2 represents the aponeurosis notarii. Colours are given for clarity and represent the individual muscles as listed below. Dorsally originating muscles: M. complexus (red), M. biventer cervicis (black), M. splenius capitis (purple), M. rectus capitis dorsalis (blue), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (pink), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (yellow), pars profunda (green), M. interspinalis (orange). Ventrally originating muscles: M. rectus capitis lateralis (yellow), M. rectus capitis ventralis (red), M. longus colli ventralis (black). Note that this figure represents an overview of the relative muscle positions. This figure does not represent precise attachment sites. These were already provided in Figs 1–12.
Mentions: As a summary all muscles identified in T. f. pratincola are illustrated in a connection diagram (Fig 13) with the indicated osteological regions [5]. In addition, the identified muscles are illustrated in an S-shaped neck in Fig 14, which makes it easier to interpret the muscle function. Fig 14 also includes the data of regionalization [5]. All muscles of the Mm. craniocervicales reported in literature [6] were identified, and this gives us a complete view how the head may interact with the trunk by muscular contraction. With the description of the M. longus colli dorsalis the major part of the Mm. cervicales dorsales is described. Though some slips of the Mm. cervicales ventrales were described here, this subsystem shows more complexity than described here due to deeper located muscles. The Mm. cervicales laterales were not selected for this study, because they serially repeat, and are complex and deep.

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus