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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


M. longus colli ventralis.A) Lateral view on M. longus colli ventralis. The muscle originates from T2 as indicated by an asterisk. Muscle starts fleshy and becomes aponeurotic and splits when it runs cranially. The aponeurotic parts can clearly be seen in the middle region. Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli ventralis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral left view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines represent aponeurotic parts. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by lines representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view.
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pone.0134272.g012: M. longus colli ventralis.A) Lateral view on M. longus colli ventralis. The muscle originates from T2 as indicated by an asterisk. Muscle starts fleshy and becomes aponeurotic and splits when it runs cranially. The aponeurotic parts can clearly be seen in the middle region. Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli ventralis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral left view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines represent aponeurotic parts. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by lines representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view.

Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The M. longus colli ventralis (Fig 12) originates from the processus ventralis of a caudally located vertebra, but not from cervical vertebrae. The bounding fascia was removed to expose individual muscle slips. This muscle first forms a fleshy mass, consisting of both the left and right M. longus colli ventrales. Then the fleshy mass splits into two parts from which each part travels to a side and runs cranially. Finally, eight aponeurotic slips originate on each side from the fleshy mass and run in parallel in a broad overlapping bundle (Fig 12A). From vertebra C10 until C3, one slip sheds off at each vertebra, and inserts at a lateroventral point on the processus transversus (Fig 12B–12I). The tough and complex fascia interferes with a proper dissection of the Mm. cervicales ventrales in T. f. pratincola. Even when the fascia was incised it was hard to separate the individual muscle slips.


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. longus colli ventralis.A) Lateral view on M. longus colli ventralis. The muscle originates from T2 as indicated by an asterisk. Muscle starts fleshy and becomes aponeurotic and splits when it runs cranially. The aponeurotic parts can clearly be seen in the middle region. Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli ventralis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral left view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines represent aponeurotic parts. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by lines representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g012: M. longus colli ventralis.A) Lateral view on M. longus colli ventralis. The muscle originates from T2 as indicated by an asterisk. Muscle starts fleshy and becomes aponeurotic and splits when it runs cranially. The aponeurotic parts can clearly be seen in the middle region. Coordinate system indicates dorsal (D), caudal (Ca), ventral (V) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Muscle attachment sites of the M. longus colli ventralis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral left view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli ventralis in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips, broken lines represent aponeurotic parts. K) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. rectus capitis ventralis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by lines representing the muscle slips. The blue lines represent ventrally located slips, which are thus actually behind the field of vision in a dorsal view.
Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The M. longus colli ventralis (Fig 12) originates from the processus ventralis of a caudally located vertebra, but not from cervical vertebrae. The bounding fascia was removed to expose individual muscle slips. This muscle first forms a fleshy mass, consisting of both the left and right M. longus colli ventrales. Then the fleshy mass splits into two parts from which each part travels to a side and runs cranially. Finally, eight aponeurotic slips originate on each side from the fleshy mass and run in parallel in a broad overlapping bundle (Fig 12A). From vertebra C10 until C3, one slip sheds off at each vertebra, and inserts at a lateroventral point on the processus transversus (Fig 12B–12I). The tough and complex fascia interferes with a proper dissection of the Mm. cervicales ventrales in T. f. pratincola. Even when the fascia was incised it was hard to separate the individual muscle slips.

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.