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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

M. interspinalis.A) Dorsal view on M. interspinalis (is) spanning the space between the processus spinosus of C2 (insertion) and C3 (origin) which are indicated by asterisks whereas the tori dorsales of C2 are indicated by circles with broken lines. The M. splenius capitis (sc), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (cr) and a slip from the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (ca) are indicated as a reference. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-C) Muscle attachment sites of the M. interspinalis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). D) Connection diagram from lateral view of the M. interspinalis origin and insertion sites are connected with a line representing the muscle. E) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. interspinalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle.
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pone.0134272.g011: M. interspinalis.A) Dorsal view on M. interspinalis (is) spanning the space between the processus spinosus of C2 (insertion) and C3 (origin) which are indicated by asterisks whereas the tori dorsales of C2 are indicated by circles with broken lines. The M. splenius capitis (sc), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (cr) and a slip from the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (ca) are indicated as a reference. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-C) Muscle attachment sites of the M. interspinalis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). D) Connection diagram from lateral view of the M. interspinalis origin and insertion sites are connected with a line representing the muscle. E) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. interspinalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle.

Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The Mm. interspinales consist of small dorsomedial slips, which connect the processus spinosi of adjacent vertebrae [6]. In T. f. pratincola a M. interspinalis (Fig 11) was identified as a short muscle located between the processus spinosi of C2 and C3 (Fig 11A). We did not further check whether there exist M. interspinales between other cervical vertebrae. The M. interspinalis is located medioventrally from the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis slips. The fibres of this muscle are oriented parallel and are approximately seven millimetres in length. Both origin and insertion are fleshy. The course of the muscle is simple and very short (Fig 11A, 11D and 11E).


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. interspinalis.A) Dorsal view on M. interspinalis (is) spanning the space between the processus spinosus of C2 (insertion) and C3 (origin) which are indicated by asterisks whereas the tori dorsales of C2 are indicated by circles with broken lines. The M. splenius capitis (sc), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (cr) and a slip from the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (ca) are indicated as a reference. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-C) Muscle attachment sites of the M. interspinalis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). D) Connection diagram from lateral view of the M. interspinalis origin and insertion sites are connected with a line representing the muscle. E) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. interspinalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g011: M. interspinalis.A) Dorsal view on M. interspinalis (is) spanning the space between the processus spinosus of C2 (insertion) and C3 (origin) which are indicated by asterisks whereas the tori dorsales of C2 are indicated by circles with broken lines. The M. splenius capitis (sc), M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis (cr) and a slip from the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars caudalis (ca) are indicated as a reference. Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-C) Muscle attachment sites of the M. interspinalis indicated with red circles in the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae of T. f. pratincola: lateral view (cranial is to the left). Scale bars represent one millimetre (adapted from [5]). D) Connection diagram from lateral view of the M. interspinalis origin and insertion sites are connected with a line representing the muscle. E) Connection diagram from dorsal view of M. interspinalis in which the muscle attachment sites are indicated with red circles and are interconnected by a line representing the muscle.
Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The Mm. interspinales consist of small dorsomedial slips, which connect the processus spinosi of adjacent vertebrae [6]. In T. f. pratincola a M. interspinalis (Fig 11) was identified as a short muscle located between the processus spinosi of C2 and C3 (Fig 11A). We did not further check whether there exist M. interspinales between other cervical vertebrae. The M. interspinalis is located medioventrally from the M. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis slips. The fibres of this muscle are oriented parallel and are approximately seven millimetres in length. Both origin and insertion are fleshy. The course of the muscle is simple and very short (Fig 11A, 11D and 11E).

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus