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Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.


M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda.A) Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda. Due to its deep location more dorsally located muscle slips were spread apart by needles. The numbers of the cervical vertebrae are indicated (C6-C12). Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Attachment sites of the individual M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda slips. Vertebrae in B-E are shown in dorsal view in which cranial is on top, vertebrae in F-I are shown in lateral view in which left is cranial. The colours of the circles indicate to which slip the attachment site belongs and corresponds with the colours as used in the connection diagram (J). Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. Colours are given for clarity and represent slips from the same muscle and correspond to the colours in B-I.
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pone.0134272.g010: M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda.A) Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda. Due to its deep location more dorsally located muscle slips were spread apart by needles. The numbers of the cervical vertebrae are indicated (C6-C12). Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Attachment sites of the individual M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda slips. Vertebrae in B-E are shown in dorsal view in which cranial is on top, vertebrae in F-I are shown in lateral view in which left is cranial. The colours of the circles indicate to which slip the attachment site belongs and corresponds with the colours as used in the connection diagram (J). Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. Colours are given for clarity and represent slips from the same muscle and correspond to the colours in B-I.

Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda of T. f. pratincola (Fig 10) consists of several individual muscles which are located within C5-C12 (Fig 10B–10I). The pars profunda is located ventrally from the pars caudalis. The delicate muscles pass one or more vertebrae before they insert (Fig 10A). The muscles have parallel fibres and the individual muscles are also oriented parallel from each other.


Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

Boumans ML, Krings M, Wagner H - PLoS ONE (2015)

M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda.A) Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda. Due to its deep location more dorsally located muscle slips were spread apart by needles. The numbers of the cervical vertebrae are indicated (C6-C12). Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Attachment sites of the individual M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda slips. Vertebrae in B-E are shown in dorsal view in which cranial is on top, vertebrae in F-I are shown in lateral view in which left is cranial. The colours of the circles indicate to which slip the attachment site belongs and corresponds with the colours as used in the connection diagram (J). Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. Colours are given for clarity and represent slips from the same muscle and correspond to the colours in B-I.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4519302&req=5

pone.0134272.g010: M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda.A) Dorsal view on M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda. Due to its deep location more dorsally located muscle slips were spread apart by needles. The numbers of the cervical vertebrae are indicated (C6-C12). Coordinate system indicates lateral (L), caudal (Ca) and cranial (Cr). Scale bar represents one centimetre. B-I) Attachment sites of the individual M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda slips. Vertebrae in B-E are shown in dorsal view in which cranial is on top, vertebrae in F-I are shown in lateral view in which left is cranial. The colours of the circles indicate to which slip the attachment site belongs and corresponds with the colours as used in the connection diagram (J). Scale bars in B-I represent one millimetre (adapted from: [5]). J) Connection diagram from lateral view of M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda in T. f. pratincola; origin and insertion sites are connected with lines representing the muscle slips. Colours are given for clarity and represent slips from the same muscle and correspond to the colours in B-I.
Mentions: Muscle characteristics: The M. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda of T. f. pratincola (Fig 10) consists of several individual muscles which are located within C5-C12 (Fig 10B–10I). The pars profunda is located ventrally from the pars caudalis. The delicate muscles pass one or more vertebrae before they insert (Fig 10A). The muscles have parallel fibres and the individual muscles are also oriented parallel from each other.

Bottom Line: This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species.The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far.Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

No MeSH data available.